FOUN 1106: Academic English for Research PurposesSemester 1: 2020/2021

Credit Assignment 5 (Individual assignment) – Writing the Discussion Section of theResearch PaperDue Date: Saturday 12th December @ 11:59 PM (Week 13) – Online SubmissionFor Credit Assignment 3 (30%), you are required to write the discussion for your research papertitled “Foul Behaviours, Attitudes and Scoring on the Field.” You must peruse theintroduction/literature review, and the results of the research in order to produce a coherentdiscussion. Specific guidelines follow your partial research paper below.Assignment particulars:Your final word count is approximately 600 – 650 words. Ensure you use Times New Roman,Font 12, double spaced on one side of white letter-sized paper.A cover page must be affixed to the assignment (as per the particulars found in the courseoutline). Ensure you attach the rubric to the assignment before uploading it to myelearning.Your response must reflect the attributes of formal English.Late assignments may incur a penalty.Academic Literacies ProgrammeDepartment of Modern Languages and LinguisticsNovember 2020Below are relevant portions of a research paper you need to peruse in order to write thediscussion to complete the paper:May I curse a referee? Swear words and consequencesIntroductionReferees are responsible for the players’ adherence to the Laws of the Game. Players,substitutes, substituted players, and team officials must respect them. In soccer (football), theLaws of the Game are subject to the authority of the International Football Association Board(Fédération International de Football Association, 2009/2010). The latter defines the outlinesof the game (e.g., the field of play, the duration of a match) as well as disciplinary sanctions(e.g., yellow or red card). Referees should enforce the laws to the letter and provide flexibilityonly in well-defined situations (e.g., Law 12, Cautionable offences: persistent infringement ofthe Laws of the Game).Research on soccer referees has been largely focused on physical aspects (Castagna et al.,2002; Catterall et al., 1993; Di Salvo et al., 2007; Helsen and Bultynck, 2004; Krustrup et al.,2002), the offside (Maruenda, 2004; Oudejans et al., 2000; 2005), countable decisions (Helsenand Bultynck, 2004; Plessner et al., 2006a), and stress (Brand, 2002). Referees frequently haveto make decisions under challenging circumstances. Research has shown that, when judgingfouls, referees may be influenced by crowd noise (Nevill et al., 2002) or by the home-fieldadvantage (Boyko et al., 2007; Garicano et al., 2005; Sutter and Kocher, 2004).Executing the Laws of the Game during a match requires evaluation of game situationswhich means referees have to make judgments on the evidence available (Mascarenhas et al.,2006; Plessner and Haar, 2006b). Those heuristics are used in ambiguous situations (Plessneret al., 2006a). Souchon et al. (2009) explored the standard of competition as a heuristic factorin judgment influenced by stereotypes. Souchon and colleagues (2009) analyzed 30 handballmatches from two different levels and registered evidence of different sporting anddisciplinary judgments. Another heuristic factor is gender (Souchon et al., 2010).Physical and perceptual-cognitive demands of referees and assistant referees wereinvestigated during the Euro 2000 championship (Helsen and Bultynck, 2004). Helsen andBultynck found that referees have to make approximately 200 decisions per match. About 137are observable, such as a corner kick. Decisions (direct free kick) related to Law 12 (Fouls andmisconduct) are involved in about 28% of all judgments. Only Law 15 (The throw-in) isapplied more frequently (about 31% of all judgments).Plessner and Betsch (2001) initiated a discussion on referees’ decisions and concludedthat decisions are influenced unintentionally by previous judgments. In regard to thisdiscussion, Mascarenhas et al. (2002) argued that referees apply game management. Thismeans that referees are generally supposed to apply the Laws of the Game, but during anactual match they have to be sensitive for the flow of the game. This can lead to a situationwhere the referee is not executing the law the way the rules would have indicated. However,this incorrect decision is appropriate for the game. Brand et al. (2006) supported the approachof game management. They analyzed the impact of the sequential context by showing contactsituations from actual games to basketball referees. Those ones, who saw the scenes in orderthey occurred, assigned more severe consequences than those referees, who viewed thesituations as single incidences. Therefore, game management implies consistency in referees’decisions. Previous judgments serve as references for subsequent decisions. Unkelbach andMemmert (2008) added the consistency model (Haubensak, 1992) and discussed thecalibration process. This lasts for the duration of about 10 scenes at the beginning of a matchand sets the referees’ internal judgment scale. Unkelbach and Memmert came to theconclusion that game management and calibration are not mutually exclusive phenomena.Game management requires the more automatic process of calibration. At the base of thediscussion about decisions is the question as to whether refereeing is an art or a craft (Plessnerand Betsch, 2002).Additional evidence that referees rather apply game management than sticking to theLaws of the Game comes from Brand and Neß (2004). Brand and Neß questioned basketball,handball, and ice hockey referees about self-perception. Referees regarded themselves as gamemanagers rather than administrators of the Laws of the Game.If we look into the Laws of the Game, there is no evidence of the term game management.It only appears once in the addendum (Interpretation of the laws of the game and guidelinesfor referees) where it is mentioned in the context of persistent infringement (FédérationInternational de Football Association, 2009/2010, p. 117). To sum up, although gamemanagement is not part of the Laws of the Game, previous research repeatedly found evidencethat referees not only apply the Laws of the Game but also use game management.To date, verbal abuse in soccer as defined in Law 12 has not been analyzed. There is nostudy whether referees apply this law as mentioned in the Laws of the Game. The existingpublished literature (Kaissidis and Anshel, 1993) shows that players’ verbal abuse of refereesis perceived as one of the most irksome situations in a game. These include words or phrasesexpressed with the explicit purpose of offending the referees’ intelligence. In the present studywe investigated referees’ judgments under laboratory conditions.The Laws of the Game instruct the referees as to how they should respond when players,substitutes, substituted players, or team officials use abusive language. According to Law 12, aplayer, substitute, or substituted player using offensive, insulting or abusive language and/orgestures is to be expelled from the game (Fédération International de Football Association,2009/2010, p. 35). The referee shows the red card to the offender, regardless of whether theword or phrase was addressed to an opponent, a team mate, the referee himself, an assistantreferee, or any other person.Law 12 defines the consequence of sanctions and specifies the significance of the cards.The yellow card is a warning issued to a player, substitute or a substituted player while the redcard calls for expulsion from the game. Two yellow cards would result in a red one. The bluecard is only used in juvenile teams to caution the player, who is then asked to leave the field ofplay for ten minutes.The major questions under consideration are focused on discovering how consistentreferees are in applying the laws of the game and if their choices are a function of their biasesand experiences. This research is also interested in assessing whether the rules of the game orthe spirit of the game takes precedence in the way referees rule when players use abusive orinsulting language during the game.According to Law 12, the user of a swear word is to be assigned a red card. In the presentstudy referees were asked to pronounce their judgment about the use of individual swearwords in a specific situation. The purpose was to determine whether referees would respond toswear words in accordance with the Laws of the Game. As we are not aware of anyquestionnaire assessing the insulting content of swear words, we first developed an instrumentfor the evaluation of swear words (Study 1). In the main study (Study 2) we then testedwhether referees are inconsistent in their judgment of swear words in terms of their issuance ornon-issuance of a red card.STUDY 1MethodsParticipantsThirteen German speaking adults with various living backgrounds and from different parts ofAustria participated (46% women; age range 28 to 45 years).MaterialsA self-developed questionnaire by the authors, consisting of 100 swear words, had to be ratedon a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (not at all insulting) to 7 (highly insulting). The questionnairecan be obtained from the corresponding author via email. Furthermore, participants had to ratethe insulting content of each swear word. Does the swear word concern the person’s power ofjudgment (e.g., blind person), intelligence (e.g., fool), appearance (e.g., fatso), sexualorientation (e.g., bugger), or genitals (e.g., crap)? Finally, the swear words were rated as towhether they are used for men, women, or both.ProcedureEvaluators were recruited through the authors’ personal contacts. To avoid order effects, tworandomized lists of swear words were made. After written consent had been obtained, theevaluator filled in the questionnaire. All evaluators participated on a voluntary basis andreceived no remuneration. They were ensured that their responses would remain anonymousand confidential, and were verbally debriefed after they had returned their questionnaires.ResultsDepending on its degree of offensiveness, each swear word was assigned a mean score. Theassignment of each swear word to one of the five insulting categories (e.g., intelligence) wasdetermined by using the highest percentage of assignment. For the final questionnaire of thestudy, we chose 5 to 6 swear words from each type of insulting content according to the meanrating of its offensiveness (highly, moderately, or mildly offensive). In all, 28 swear wordswere chosen and balanced against the degree of insult and content categories’ affiliation.STUDY 2MethodsParticipants and ProcedureAll male soccer referees (n = 198) from Vienna were invited by postal mailing. A prepaidenvelope was enclosed. To obtain a balanced sample in respect of gender, female soccerreferees across Austria (n = 32) were also invited to participate. Prior to the main study,referees in Vienna were informed by the board of referees about the forthcoming survey.Female referees across Austria were pre-informed by the Austrian Soccer Association. Areminder was sent out one week after the initial invitation. In all, 113 (response rate: 49.1%;82.3% men) referees returned the questionnaire (Mage = 37.3, SD = 12.2; range 17 to 65years; duration of work as a referee: M = 10.8 years, SD = 9.4; range 1 to 44 years). Both maleand female referees had a variety of professions and had served as referees for a wide range ofcompetition levels from type 1 (children’s leagues) to type 7 (international matches) (M = 3.9,SD = 1.7; median = 4 [sixth division], range = 1 to 7).Figure 1. Referees’ (n = 113) reactions to swear words (n =28) in percentages.MaterialsSwear word questionnaire. Referees were asked to read a short account of a common situationworded as follows: “Up to the thirtieth minute, the game was played fair by both teams. Thereferee did not have to caution anyone or show a yellow or red card. While a goal was beingshot, a defending player of the visiting team was hit by the ball on the shoulder. The ball wasdeflected. You as referee observed this event at close range and decided to continue with thegame. You observed that the arm of the defending player was not involved. Specifically, thearm did not move towards the ball. Besides, from your point of view the defender was hit by aplayer of the home team. When the ball is out of game after this occurs, the captain of thehome team comes up to you and says: ‘Sir/Madam, it occurred in the penalty area and clearlycalls for a penalty kick. The defender’s upper arm did move towards the ball.’ You explainthat the player was hit on the shoulder. Hereupon the team captain says …(the swear wordmentioned below), turns around and walks way.” (For the reader’s information, the defender’shand or arm did not move deliberately towards the ball. Law 12 need not to be appliedbecause the defender was hit on the shoulder. The situation occurred in the penalty area. If thedefender’s hand or arm had moved deliberately towards the ball, Law 12 would result in adirect free kick. Since it happened in the penalty area, the result would have been a penaltykick, which would have signified a major scoring opportunity. Thus, the referee’s decision wasin keeping with the Laws of the Game).The referees had to rate all 28 swear words as to how they would respond to them (redcard, yellow/blue card, admonition, not at all).ResultsAnalyzing all swear words independent of their offensive nature, it was found that 55.7%of the swear words would have received a red card, although Law 12 would have prescribed ared card in all cases (Figure 1).This effect was independent of the referee’s qualification (i.e., the highest league thereferee had served in; Kruskal-Wallis: χ2 = 8.7, df = 8, p = 0.37) or the duration of his/herhaving served as a referee (r = 0.12, p = 0.21).Furthermore, we found that the decision to assign any card was dependent on the insultingcontent of the swear word (Table 1). Referees would have issued a red card for sexuallyinclined words or phrases rather than for terms insulting one’s appearance (Table 1).Table 1. Mean percentage of given cards to swear words depending on their insulting content.Adapted for teaching purposesCredit Assignment GuidelinesNow that the results are in, the researcher’s aim is to make sense of the results. You should notsimply restate the results but seek to understand them and apply them to the study; essentiallyyou are to draw conclusions and explain the findings.The structure of the Discussion SectionIntroductory paragraph:

State the purpose of the research.
Identify the significance (why should such a study be done) of the research
Identify the type of research.
Identify the main theme/areas of focus of the data (the research questions generatedthe focus).Body paragraphs:
Each paragraph begins with a topic statement (possibly focused on a research question).
Explain how the findings/data substantiate or correlate to the existing body ofinformation (literature review).
Provide a rationale if the findings are surprising or at variance with expectation.statement).
Give a brief analysis of the implications of the result for the study or general population(whichever is applicable).
Identify a limitation of the current research and future research.Concluding paragraph:
Summarize the main findings and state how they fit with the body of literature on thetopic.
Summarize possible gaps in this research/future study and audience that would benefit.
Provide a final statement on what the results mean for this general area of study.
Generate a sense of closure.END OF PAPER

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

 

Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

How It Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

How It Works
1.      Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2.      Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3.      Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4.      Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

 

PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH ASSIGNMENT WORKER TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT

The post Academic English for Research Purposes appeared first on Essay fount.


What Students Are Saying About Us

.......... Customer ID: 12*** | Rating: ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
"Honestly, I was afraid to send my paper to you, but you proved you are a trustworthy service. My essay was done in less than a day, and I received a brilliant piece. I didn’t even believe it was my essay at first 🙂 Great job, thank you!"

.......... Customer ID: 11***| Rating: ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
"This company is the best there is. They saved me so many times, I cannot even keep count. Now I recommend it to all my friends, and none of them have complained about it. The writers here are excellent."


"Order a custom Paper on Similar Assignment at essayfount.com! No Plagiarism! Enjoy 20% Discount!"