Supermarket/Neighborhood BotanyThis section of the lab is continuation of our adaptation from Smith and Avery “SupermarketBotany” The American Biology Teacher Vol. 61 #2 Feb 1999. Supermarket botany is anexploration of plant life by looking at the different types and forms of plants found in the producesection of your grocery store. Hopefully your lecture on plant anatomy and morphology alreadyhas you familiar with plant parts and your discovery of lecture taxonomy you have a basicunderstanding of plant types (monocot vs. eudicot). In this lab you are going to put that newfound knowledge to the test and see if you can apply what you learned to determine whatbotanical part you are actually eating when you make your next salad, BBQ side dish or gumbo.Procedure 2.1

Making your Hypothesis – Go to the vegetable section of the store and look for thespecimens listed in the table at the end of this lab handout. These are suggestions, youmay alter the list as you see fit. The choices we are suggesting are the best for an allaround examination of plant morphology. How boring would it be if you did 8 stems?
Examine the external structures/features of each specimen by gently handling them.Note: if you purchased your specimens you can cut them in half and examine theinterior as well. This may give you extra information to help you generate yourhypotheses in the next steps but is not mandatory.
Record your hypothesis for which plant organ (root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit etc) yourspecimen represents in the column “Plant Organ Hypothesis” in the table provided at theend of the lab.
Record your hypothesis for which class of Angiosperms (Monocot or Eudicot) yourspecimen represents in the column “Plant Taxonomy Hypothesis” in the table providedat the end of the lab.Note: There are no expectations or points assigned to your hypothesis, just yourbest guess.
In each hypothesis explanation column; explain what observations you made to developyour hypothesis. Be sure to use proper botanical terms and reasoning.
Testing your Hypothesis – Using your macro observations of the specimens along withlecture/lab notes and any outside resources, please confirm your hypothesis for bothplant part and monocot vs. eudicot (cite your information source). If you already knowthe name of your vegetable or fruit, you might start with a Google Search, “Is a carrot amonocot?”
Once you are sure of your answer, using proper botanical terms, support your answer.For example, I know that this * is a eudicot root because of the presence of dirt onthe specimen in the original observation. It was confirmed by observing the large cortexand the small vascular bundle with an “X” in the xylem.
Please draw and label your specimens. See Lab 1 Exercise 1.4 for instructions on makingproper scientific drawings. Please photograph each of the specimens and submit thephotos with your student handout.Stem LabA stem is the primary structural support of most plants. It connects the roots to the rest of theplant tissues transporting water and minerals up from the roots. It also transports nutrientsfrom photosynthetic regions (generally leaves) to the rest of the tissues in the plant. The stemcan also store food reserves for times of need. Stems are composed of regions of nodes andinternodes. Nodes are areas where something (such as a leaf or flower) attaches to the stemand internodes are the regions of stem between two nodes. Some stems have modifications toperform specialized functions such as photosynthesis, extra food storage, or asexualreproduction, see Figure 2.2 for examples of some stem modifications. You may even recognizesome of them from your supermarket botany produce.Procedure 2.2A
For this exercise and the ones that follow you will need to make an excursion out intonature to collect specimens: nature can be your own backyard if you have trees and plantsgrowing there or someone else’s backyard (as long as you have their permission to bethere, no trespassing please), or whatever park is down the road from you.
Find 3 different types of plants to observe in your location. Just to make it interesting,make sure you have a really large plant (like a tree), and a couple of small ones.
Observe the stem parts, see Figure 2.1 for stem parts.
Identify whether your stem is an herbaceous (non-woody) or a woody stem.
Identify whether your plant is a monocot or eudicot based on its visible features.
Please draw and label the parts of your 3 stem specimens, indicate type of stem(herbaceous/woody) and classification of plant (Monocot/Eudicot).
Please photograph each of the specimens and submit the photos with your studenthandout (please submit all the photos taken during this lab in a single power point orword doc labeled with their exercise number).Procedure 2.2 B
Find 2 plants with modifications to their stems. See Figure 2.2 for a few examples of stemmodifications (you may want to use some of your supermarket botany specimens thatyou observed in lab or in exercise 2.1 of this handout).
Identify whether your stem is an herbaceous (non-woody) or woody stem.
Identify whether your plant is a monocot or eudicot based on its visible features.
Please draw and label the parts of your 2 modified stems, indicate type of stem(herbaceous/woody) and classification of plant (Monocot/Eudicot).Figure 2.1: External anatomy of a woody twig.(Source: McGraw-Hill ©; via Kingsley R. Stern 1997)
Using your observations create a hypothesis for the function of the modification youobserved.
Use your notes, lectures and research to determine the actual function of themodification.
Please photograph each of the specimens and submit the photos with your studenthandout (please submit all the photos taken during this lab in a single power point orword doc labeled with their exercise number).Exercise 2.3 Root LabA root serves as the primary source of water and mineral acquisition for most plants. The waterand minerals get absorbed by the roots and then transported to the stem. Roots also serve asan anchor system for most plants. The roots anchor the plant to the substrate (usually soil) andprevent them from blowing or washing away. This in turn helps hold onto the soil and helpsprevent erosion of the soil. Monocot plants have a fibrous root system where there is no singleprimary root but rather lots of roots of similar sizes. Eudicots on the other hand have tap rootsystems where one primary root grows downward and smaller roots (known as secondaryroots) branch off it, see Figure 2.3 for examples of root system types. While fibrous rootsystems tend to spread outward in the soil and are great for erosion control, tap roots tend togrow deep into the soil providing strong anchors and reaching deep mineral deposits. Rootsgenerally have 3 regions in them: apical meristem (where cell division occurs), region ofelongation (newly formed cells continue to grow and elongate expanding the root further intothe soil), and the region of maturation (area where cells are no longer growing but areperforming their functions such as water and mineral absorption), see Figure 2.4 for examplesof root parts. Some roots have modifications to perform specialized functions such as extrafood storage, aeration, parasitism of other plants or asexual reproduction, see Figure 2.5 forFigure 2.2: Examples of modified stems: (A) Runners; (B) Rhizomes; (C) Tubers; (D) Corms; (E)Bulbs; (F) Tendrils; (G) Cladophylls.(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)examples of some root modifications.Procedure 2.3 A
For this exercise you will need to pick or dig up a few plants to observe their roots.Note: Please don’t do this at your local park, we don’t want anyone in trouble.This would be a great time to offer to weed your grandmother’s garden or find aroad side ditch (please choose a safe roadside with a low speed limit, for examplecollecting these on the side of I35 would not be a safe choice). Use your bestjudgement here.
You need to find at least one taproot and one fibrous root specimen (see figure 2.3 forexamples of each)Note: you may have to pull up more than two plants in order to get a goodexample of each. Use your monocot vs eudicot deciphering skills here todetermine which plants will have which root type, this should minimize thenumber of plants you have to pull in order to find an example of each.
Observe the root parts see Figure 2.4 for root parts.
Please draw and label the parts of your 2 root specimens, indicate type of root(fibrous/taproot) and classification of plant (Monocot/Eudicot).Figure 2.3: Root types: (A) Taproot; (B) Fibrous root(Source: McGraw-hill © via Jonathan Buckly Getty Images)
Please photograph each of the specimens and submit the photos with your studenthandout (please submit all the photos taken during this lab in a single power point orword doc labeled with their exercise number).

Procedure 2.3 B

Find 1 plant with modifications to its roots, you may use a vegetable from the grocerystore as an example if needed. See Figure 2.5 for a few examples of root modifications.
Identify whether your plant is a monocot or eudicot.
Please draw and label the parts of your modified root, indicate classification of plant(Monocot/Eudicot).Figure 2.5: Specialized roots: (A) Prop root; (B) Haustoria; (C) Pneumatophores(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)Figure 2.4: Root Parts: (A) Taproot; (B) Fibrous root(Source: McGraw-hill © via Jonathan Buckly Getty Images)
Using your observations create a hypothesis for the function of the modification youobserved.
Use your notes, lectures and research to determine the actual function of themodification.
Please photograph each of the specimens and submit the photos with your studenthandout (please submit all the photos taken during this lab in a single power point orword doc labeled with their exercise number).Exercise 2.4 Leaf LabThe primary function of most leaves is photosynthesis (food production) and gas exchange withthe environment. Leaves also help in the process of transpiration (the movement of waterthrough plants). Water has some unique properties one of which is the fact that it is attractedto itself (which is called cohesion) and therefore tends to follow itself. You can see this forcewhen you place a piece of tubing into a bowl of water and suck on the other end of the tubinglike it’s a straw until water starts to flow through the tubing. Once the water starts to flow itwill continue to do so even after you have stopped the sucking pressure. This is how manualaquarium siphons function (go here to see an example: http://tinyurl.com/siphon2017). Leaveshave two main parts the blade (region of photosynthesis) and the petiole (attaches blade to thestem) see Figure 2.6 for examples of leaf parts. Leaves just like other plant parts can haveadaptations to perform other functions as well such as; water storage, defense mechanisms,climbing mechanisms and even asexual reproduction see Figure 2.13 for examples.Procedure 2.4A
For this lab find 6 different types of leaves (they do not have be leaves from a tree, anyplant leaves will do and you will see more variety if you get some from trees and somefrom herbaceous plants).
Before you collect the leaves observe them on the stem or branch to determine theircomplexity and arrangement.
To determine complexity, look at how the petioles of the leaves attach to the main stem.If one leaf attaches directly to the main stem with a petiole, then it is a simple leaf but ifmultiple leaves attach to the petiole which then attaches to the main stem then it is acompound leaf. See Figure 2.6 for examples of leaf complexity.
If your leaf is compound determine the type of compound leaf by comparing it to figure2.7.Figure 2.6: Complexity of leaves, Simple vs Comound.(Source: Harold Bryan; http://slideplayer.com/slide/7401682/)Figure 2.7: Leaf complexity: (A) Palmately compound; (B) Simple; (C)Pinnately compound; (D) Bipinnately compound.(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)
To determine the arrangement of the leaves on the stem compare them to Figure 2.8.Note: When determining arrangement consider where the petiole attaches to thestem. For compound leaves this means considering how the entire compound leafattaches to the main stem not how each leaflet attaches to the petiole. CompareFigures 2.8 & 2.9 to see how compound leaf arrangements are determined.Figure 2.8: Leaf arrangements on stems: (A) Opposite; (B) Alternate; (C) Whorled.(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)Figure 2.9: Compound leaf arrangements on stem: (A) Opposite; (B) Alternate;(Source: Cofrin Center for Biodiversity, www.uwgb.edu)
If you wish to pick your leaf you may do so but it is not necessary.
Compare your leaf to figure 2.10 to determine its venation type.
Identify whether your leaf is from a monocot or eudicot based on its visible features.
Compare your leaf to figure 2.11 to determine its shape.Figure 2.10: Leaf venation: (A) Pinnate; (B) Parallel; (C) Palmate; (D)Dichotomous.(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)
Compare your leaf to figure 2.12 to determine the type of leaf margin (edge of the leaf).
Please draw and label the parts of your 6 leaf specimens.
Please photograph each of the specimens and submit the photos with your studenthandout (please submit all the photos taken during this lab in a single power point orword doc labeled with their exercise number).Procedure 2.4B
Find 1 leaf with modifications to its structures, you may use a vegetable from the grocerystore as an example if needed. The hallway in the science wing at North Lake has manyof these! See Figure 2.13 for a few examples of leaf modifications.Figure 2.11: Representative leaf shapes(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)Figure 2.12: Representative leaf margins(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)
Identify whether your plant is a monocot or eudicot.
Please draw and label the parts of your modified leaf, indicate classification of plant(Monocot/Eudicot).
Using your observations create a hypothesis for the function of the modification youobserved.
Use your notes, lectures and research to determine the actual function of themodification.Figure 2.13: Examples of modified leaves: (A) Succulent leaves; (B) Spines; (C) Sensitive leaves(leaves close when touched); (D) Floating leaves; (E) Tendrils (for climbing); (F) Insect-trappingleaves, (G) Reproductive leaves.(Source: Pendarvis and Crawley, 2016)
Please photograph each of the specimens and submit the photos with your studenthandout (please submit all the photos taken during this lab in a single power point orword doc labeled with their exercise number).Exercise 2.1 Supermarket Neighborhood Botany Data SheetRecord your observations in the table below. Draw your specimens on separate sheets of paperand submit them along with your photographs and this handout. Please submit all the photostaken during this lab in a single power point or word doc labeled with their exercise number.Food Plant PartGuessActual Part EvidenceGarlicSquashParsnip/CarrotRomaineLettuceGingerRadishRhubarbExercise 2.2 parts A & B: Stem LabPlease draw and label your specimens on separate sheets of paper and submit them along with yourphotographs and this handout. You may draw more than one specimen per page if there is still roomfor your labels. Please make all your labels neat and legible. Please submit all the photos taken duringthis lab in a single power point or word doc labeled with their exercise number.Exercise 2.4 parts A & B: Leaf LabPlease draw and label your specimens on separate sheets of paper and submit them along with yourphotographs and this handout. You may draw more than one specimen per page if there is still roomfor your labels. Please make all your labels neat and legible. Please submit all the photos taken duringthis lab in a single power point or word doc labeled with their exercise number.Exercise 2.3 parts A & B: Root LabPlease draw and label your specimens on separate sheets of paper and submit them along with yourphotographs and this handout. You may draw more than one specimen per page if there is still roomfor your labels. Please make all your labels neat and legible. Please submit all the photos taken duringthis lab in a single power point or word doc labeled with their exercise number.

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