. Compare your answer(answer 1) to that of your classmate (answer2)to produce some interestingdialog. Your response should include evidence base review within 5 with propercitations using APA format.


How do you view the role of psychiatric medication inthe promotion of patient well-being?

My view on psychiatricmedication in promoting the well-being of patients with mental illnesses isthat medication plays a role that is as important as the role of therapy.Mental illness symptoms result from chemical imbalances in an individual’sbrain. Thus, medications can play an important role by correcting theimbalances to reduce or completely relieve the symptoms. Medications can reduceor eliminate hallucinations and terrible thoughts. Because they can promoteclear thinking, staying focused on reality, calmness, and feeling organized.They can also improve sleeping patterns and promote effective communication.While antipsychotic medications can help, medications may not be effectivebecause they treat the symptoms, and the symptoms can reoccur; thus,Nonpharmacological treatments should be used as an addition to medications(Muoz-Negro, et al., 2019).

What are theadvantages and disadvantages of being a psychopharmacologist versus alsointegrating psychotherapy in your clinical practice?

The advantages of being apsychopharmacologist are numerous. According to Carlat (2010), the work of apsychopharmacologist is routine because it often follows a systematic method ofmemorizing the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) of common mentaldisorders, mastering the art of asking relevant questions, diagnosing thecondition, and prescribing medication that matches the symptoms. Secondly,being a psychopharmacologist enables one to spend less time handling a singlepatient than therapy, which takes longer time and requires frequent visits. Thedisadvantage of being a psychopharmacologist is that it focuses on medicationand does not focus on developing relationships with patients and establishing amyriad of other conditions or factors that may be relevant to the mentalproblems and the processes involved (Barbui et al., 2018). Integratingpsychotherapy in the practice enables practitioners to understand the existenceof other physical or social issues which contribute to mental disorders andprovide professional psychological counseling. This is because not all mentalillnesses can be treated through medication alone.

What doesthe literature say (that is, support for or lack of evidence) for integrationof psychotherapy and prescribing by the same clinician (APRN or MD)?

Integrating psychotherapy andprescription by the same clinician is cost-effective in terms of time andmedical fees. Carlat (2010) states that most psychopharmacologists in the UStreat mental illnesses in a fragmented manner whereby once the diagnosis andprescription are conducted, the patients are sent to professionals in the lowercadrel ike social workers or psychologists for therapy. This kind of treatmentforces the patient to move back and forth from one professional to another,especially in situations where there is no improvement. The patient would haveto incur some costs when meeting these different professionals. The literaturealso supports the integration of psychotherapy and prescription by suggestingthat a patient should be viewed as a whole person and the mind and the body asone whole (Carlat (2010). This means that those mental patients need both mentaland physical attention, which is more effective to provide by one person thanby two or more professionals. Integrating psychotherapy with medication enablesprofessionals to know their patients well and provide emotional support,leading to improved outcomes (Busch, 2020). This is because medication improvesthe efficiency of psychotherapy, while psychotherapy helps in the management ofthe complications that come with medication. 



Whatevidence supports the use of both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology as therole for the PMHNP to improve patient outcomes?


The evidencesupporting the use of both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology is seen in thevideo, which suggests that mental illnesses are significantly reduced whenearly detection and intervention are detected. Mental illnesses also lead toother problems, such as suicide, one of the leading causes of death in the US(Insel, 2013). Early detection and intervention are possible when parents andfamilies are ready to share their medical history on possible hereditaryconditions with the medical professionals and enable them to conduct an earlydiagnosis. This means that when mental conditions are diagnosed early andcorrectly, and the necessary psychotherapy is provided to the patients and thecaregivers, there is a high likelihood of better outcomes. Carlat (2010) statesthat integrating psychotherapy and psychopharmacology allows professionals toprovide psychosocial support and understand the reasons behind the behavioralchanges in the patients. He narrates his experience with a patient called Jane,and the improvement observed when he integrated psychotherapy andpsychopharmacology in treating and managing her depression. These, coupled withthe fact that having a single professional do psychotherapy andpsychopharmacology reduces the money paid by Insurance companies and the numberand duration of visits is proof that the use of both psychotherapy and psychopharmacologyas the role for the PMHNP improves outcomes. According to Thal and Lommen(2018), the use of medication such as MDMA in the treatment and management ofmental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder has proven to beeffective as it helps in the positive identification and response to emotionsand improves the relationship between the physiotherapist and thepatient. 


How doyou view the role of psychiatric medication in the promotion of patientwell-being?

           There are numerous requirements in the promotion of an individuals well-being.Mental health disorders require various methods of care to enhance the qualityof life. Psychiatric medications play an important role in the promotion of anindividuals well-being. In my opinion, psychiatric medications are an additiveto psychotherapy that can help individuals achieve therapeutic outcomes.Psychiatric medications should be combined with psychotherapy to enhancepatient outcomes (Sammons & McGuinness, 2015). This combination can lead toreducing the overall cost of psychiatric care (Sammons, & McGuinness,2015). Psychiatric medications should be integrated with psychotherapy topromote better patient outcomes.

What are the advantagesand disadvantages of being a psychopharmacologist versus also integratingpsychotherapy in your clinical practice?

           There are multiple advantages to the integration of psychopharmacology andpsychotherapy within a healthcare provider. First, the integration of thesetreatments would help minimize the cost of medical care. According to Sammonsand McGuinness (2015), healthcare providers that combine psychopharmacology andpsychotherapy can reduce the overall cost of care. Second, healthcare providerswould be able to understand the individual on a deeper level to establish asense of the root cause of their mental illness. Carlat (2010) stated that whenindividuals require more than medications, healthcare providers should beprepared to provide psychotherapy. Healthcare providers are able to not onlytreat the underlying chemical component but the emotional component of themental illness. This integration has the ability to increase the relationshipand trust between the individual and the healthcare provider. Third, theintegration of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology provides an increase inpatient outcomes. According to Lazar (2014), psychotherapy increased theeffectiveness of psychopharmacology treatment in individuals with ADHD anddepression. These are the multiple advantages of the integration ofpsychopharmacology and psychotherapy.

           There are multiple disadvantages to the integration of psychopharmacology andpsychotherapy within a healthcare provider. First, there are fewer financialbenefits from the addition of psychotherapy in medication managementappointments. Due to the time limits on appointments, healthcare providers thatstrictly do medication management are able to see more individuals on a dailybasis. Healthcare providers that integrate psychotherapy would minimize theiravailability on a daily basis. This would limit the overall profit for thehealthcare provider. Second, individuals that require a more substantial amountof therapy would not be able to achieve that with this healthcare provider.Although the integration is beneficial, these healthcare providers are unableto provide extensive therapy sessions due to their requirements for medicationmanagement. According to Lazar (2014), individuals that require substantialtreatment would be required to seek out support from another healthcareprovider. Third, healthcare providers tend to make medication managementappointments on a one to three-month time period for follow-up appointments.This limits the availability for individuals to utilize psychotherapy toenhance their outcomes. Individuals that integrate psychotherapy should haveaccess to these resources on a more frequent schedule. Individuals may not feelthe need to seek out additional psychotherapy due to their primary healthcareprovider. These incongruencies can lead to a lap in psychotherapy treatment ofmental health disorders. These are the multiple disadvantages of theintegration of psychopharmacology and psychotherapy.

What does the literaturesay (that is, support for or lack of evidence) for integration of psychotherapyand prescribing by the same clinician (APRN or MD)?

           The literature supports the integration of psychotherapy and prescribing by thesame healthcare provider. There are numerous reasons that the literaturesupports this approach to the treatment of mental health. First, medication hasthe ability to increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy, while psychotherapyprovides the ability to address problems with medication adherence (Busch,2020). Individuals that utilize the same healthcare provider have the abilityto address their issues with their prescriber. This allows individuals toaddress issues and/or side effects that they may be experiencing frommedications. In addition, combined treatment has the ability to lowermedication doses, which can lead to lower side effects (Busch, 2020). Second,there are numerous forms of psychotherapy that have been shown to provideeffective outcomes for individuals with mental health disorders. Hoffman et al(2012) stated that combining cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promisingadjunct to pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia patients who suffer from an acuteepisode of psychosis rather than a more chronic condition. Third, a healthcareprovider that provides combined therapy avoids conflicting views that twotreating healthcare providers may have in practice. An individual that utilizessplit treatment may experience healthcare providers that practice differenttheoretical and/or clinical models that can develop tension in the managementof treatment (Busch, 2020). A psychopharmacologist that provides bothtreatments avoid conflict, while being able to have more frequent follow-upappointments to monitor the effectiveness of medications (Busch, 2020). Thereare numerous reasons that the literature is in support of the integration ofpsychotherapy and prescribing by the same healthcare provider.

What evidence supports theuse of both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology as the role for the PMHNP toimprove patient outcomes? 

           There is evidence in the literature that supports the use of both psychotherapyand psychopharmacology for the PMHNP to improve patient outcomes. It is withinthe practice of a PMHNP to be able to provide individuals withpsychopharmacology and/or psychotherapy. PMHNP are trained professionals thathave the ability to provide therapy and prescribe medications to individualsthat have mental health disorders. The integration of these treatments has beenshown to yield positive outcomes within individuals. First, there are numerousforms of psychotherapy that have been shown in research to enhance theeffectiveness of psychopharmacology treatment. Hoffman et al (2012) stated thatcombining cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising adjunct topharmacotherapy for schizophrenia patients. Second, there are numerous mentalhealth disorders that have been shown in research to benefit from combinedtreatment regimens. These mental health disorders have yielded a higher patientoutcome when healthcare providers utilize psychopharmacology and psychotherapy.For example, major depressive disorder has been shown to yield an improvedoutcome when utilizing combined therapy. Karyotaki et al. (2016) stated thatcombined maintenance therapy resulted in better-sustained treatment responsewhen compared to antidepressant treatment at six months. It is within the roleof healthcare providers to utilize combined therapy to help promote animprovement in patient outcomes.

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