Question 1

How are potassium and sodium transported across plasma membranes?

a. By passive electrolyte channels

b. By coupled channels

c. By adenosine triphosphate enzyme (ATPase)

d. By diffusion

Question 2

1 out of 1 points

What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?

a. Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

b. Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

c. Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

d. Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

Question 3

1 out of 1 points

A patient wants to know the risk factors for Down syndrome. What is the nurse’s best response?

a. Fetal exposure to mutagens in the uterus

b. Increased paternal age

c. Family history of Down syndrome

d. Pregnancy in women over age 35

Question 4

In teaching a patient with cirrhosis, which information should the nurse include regarding cholesterol?

a. Cholesterol decreases the membrane fluidity of the erythrocyte, which reduces its ability to carry oxygen.

b. Cholesterol decreases the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, which reduces its ability to carry hemoglobin.

c. Cholesterol increases the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, which allows binding of excess glucose.

d. Cholesterol increases the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, which prolongs its life span beyond 120 days

Question 5

1 out of 1 points

During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, and this is referred to as _____ atrophy.

a. Physiologic

b. Pathologic

c. Disuse

d. Neurogenic

Question 6

1 out of 1 points

A nurse is reviewing the pedigree chart. When checking for a proband, what is the nurse looking for?

a. The person who is first diagnosed with a genetic disease

b. The individual who has a disease gene but is phenotypically normal

c. The phenotype of genetic material

d. The codominance

Question 7

A cell is isolated, and electrophysiology studies reveal that the resting membrane potential is –70 millivolts. The predominant intracellular ion is Na+, and the predominant extracellular ion is K+. With voltage change, which of the following would result in an action potential?

a. K+ rushing into the cell

b. Na+ rushing into the cell

c. Na+ rushing out of the cell

d. K+ rushing out of the cell

Question 8

1 out of 1 points

A 12-year-old male is diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. His karyotype would reveal which of the following?

a. XY

b. XX

c. XYY

d. XXY

Question 9

1 out of 1 points

When a patient asks what causes cystic fibrosis, how should the nurse respond? Cystic fibrosis is caused by an _____ gene.

a. X-linked dominant

b. X-linked recessive

c. Autosomal dominant

d. Autosomal recessive

Question 10

1 out of 1 points

A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?

a. Electron-transport chain

b. Aerobic glycolysis

c. Anaerobic glycolysis

d. Oxidative phosphorylation

Question 11

1 out of 1 points

Why is potassium able to diffuse easily in and out of cells?

a. Because potassium has a greater concentration in the intracellular fluid (ICF)

b. Because sodium has a greater concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)

c. Because the resting plasma membrane is more permeable to potassium

d. Because there is an excess of anions inside the cell

Question 12

1 out of 1 points

What is the role of cytokines in cell reproduction?

a. Provide growth factor for tissue growth and development

b. Block progress of cell reproduction through the cell cycle

c. Restrain cell growth and development

d. Provide nutrients for cell growth and development

Question 13

0 out of 1 points

A nurse is teaching a patient with diabetes how glucose is transported from the blood to the cell. What type of transport system should the nurse discuss with the patient?

a. Active-mediated transport (active transport)

b. Active diffusion

c. Passive osmosis

d. Passive-mediated transport (facilitated diffusion)

Question 14

1 out of 1 points

A 50-year-old male was recently diagnosed with Huntington disease. Transmission of this disease is associated with:

a. Penetrance

b. Recurrence risk

c. Expressivity

d. Delayed age of onset

Question 15

1 out of 1 points

The nurse is teaching staff about the most common cause of Down syndrome. What is the nurse describing?

a. Paternal nondisjunction

b. Maternal translocations

c. Maternal nondisjunction

d. Paternal translocations

Question 16

1 out of 1 points

A patient has severe mental retardation caused by a deletion of part of chromosome 5. What genetic disorder will the nurse see documented in the chart?

a. Prader-Willi syndrome

b. Down syndrome

c. Cri du chat syndrome

d. Trisomy X

Question 17

A eukaryotic cell is undergoing DNA replication. In which region of the cell would most of the genetic information be contained?

a. Mitochondria
b. Ribosome
c. Nucleolus
d. Nucleus Cytoplasm

Question 18

The nurse would be correct in identifying the predominant extracellular cation as:

a. Sodium

b. Potassium

c. Chloride

d. Glucose

Question 19

A group of prison inmates developed tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues were soft and granular (like clumped cheese).Which of the following is the most likely cause?

a. Coagulative necrosis
b. Liquefactive necrosis
c. Caseous necrosis
d. Autonecrosis

Question 20

A patient who has diarrhea receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?

a. Become hydrated

b. Swell or burst

c. Shrink

d. Divide

Question 21

The early dilation (swelling) of the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum results in:

a. increased aerobic metabolism.
b. failure of DNA.
c. reduced protein synthesis.
d. increased Na+-K+ pump function.

Question 22

After a geneticist talks to the patient about being a chromosomal mosaic, the patient asks the nurse what that means. How should the nurse respond? You may _____ genetic disease(s).

a. only be a carrier of the
b. have a mild form of the
c. have two
d. be sterile as a result of the

Question 23

A 13-year-old girl has a karyotype that reveals an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome present. What medical diagnosis will the nurse observe on the chart?

a. Down syndrome
b. Cri du chat syndrome
c. Turner syndrome
d. Fragile X syndrome

Question 24

Sodium and water accumulation in an injured cell are a direct result of:

a. decreased ATP production.
b. karyorrhexis.
c. ribosome detachment.
d. dehydration.

Question 25

An aide asks the nurse why people who have neurofibromatosis will show varying degrees of the disease. Which genetic principle should the nurse explain to the aide?

a. Penetrance
b. Expressivity
c. Dominance
d. Recessiveness




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