# Introduction to statistics

Introduction to Statistics/ Statistical Procedures/ Examples

Level ofMeasurement
Average(CentralTendency)
Variation(Difference)
Relationship
Regression
Inferential Statistics/Hypothesis Testing

Nominal (type orkind)Example: Gender(male or female)
ModeThere are morefemales thanmales.
Index of Dispersion orIndex of QualitativeVariationThere is a strong variationin gender.
Chi Square, Cramer’s V orLambdaThere is a weakrelationship/associationbetween gender andmajor.*Chi Square value ranges0 to total N*Cramer’s V/Lambdavalue ranges 0 to 1
*Used for describing relationships and/or makingpredictions; Predicting the dependent variablebased upon the independent variable.A professor can predict how well students will doon an exam (dependent variable), based uponclass attendance (the independent variable).a (intercept): Persons will earn 40 points on theexam if we don’t know how many days theyattended class.b(slope): For every one day of attendancestudents will earn one-half point on the exam.r2(coefficient of determination): Ten percent ofthe variation in exam grades can be explained bydays of attendance.F sig. </= .05 (it is significant) model can be usedto make predictions; F sig. > .05 (it is notsignificant and can’t be used to make predictions)model can be used to describe relationshipsT sig. </= .05 (it is significant) the independentvariable can be used to predict the dependentvariable; T sig. > .05 (it is not significant and can’tbe used to make predictions) the independentvariable and dependent variable relationship canbe described can be used to describerelationships.
Inferential statistics allows the researcher to test forsignificance.7 Step Process#1 Describe the type of hypothesis to be used(difference, relationship, directional)#2 Confirm whether a parametric or non-parametrictest will be performed by running the KS Test fornormality KS sig. </= .05 is significant but NOTnormal; KS sig > .05 is not significant but IS normal#3 Run the parametric (one sample T test, TwoIndependent or Dependent Samples T Test, orANOVA test) or non-parametric (KS Test, MannWhitney U Test, or Wilcoxon Test) procedure#4 State the Null Hypothesis: There is no significantdifference in the test scores between male andfemale students.#5 State the Research Hypothesis Example: There is asignificant difference in the test scores betweenmale and female students.#6 Make a decision about the null hypothesis. Rejectthe null if the significance in item #3 is </= .05;Accept the null hypothesis if the significance in item#3 is > .05#7 Interpret:Example: There is a significant difference in the testscores between male and female students.

Ordinal (type,kind, or rank)Example:Student level(freshman,sophomore,junior, senior)
MedianThe averagestudent level issophomore.
RangeThere are three studentlevels around the medianstudent level of junior.
Spearman’s Rho orGammaThere is a strong positiverelationship betweenstudent level and studentplacement. As studentsgo from freshman tosenior year, theirplacement in the collegeranking also increases.*Value ranges -1 to +1

Interval/Ratio(type, kind, rank,or magnitude)Example: Age
MeanThe average ageis 23.
Standard DeviationStudent ages vary 5 yearsaround the mean of 23.
Pearson’s RThere is a weak negativerelationship betweenstudent age and salary.As student age increase,income decreases slightly.*Value ranges -1 to +1

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
Get superb grades consistently

How It Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
Get superb grades consistently

How It Works
1.      Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2.      Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3.      Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH ASSIGNMENT WORKER TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT

The post Introduction to statistics appeared first on Essay fount.

#### What Students Are Saying About Us

.......... Customer ID: 12*** | Rating: ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
"Honestly, I was afraid to send my paper to you, but you proved you are a trustworthy service. My essay was done in less than a day, and I received a brilliant piece. I didn’t even believe it was my essay at first 🙂 Great job, thank you!"

.......... Customer ID: 11***| Rating: ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
"This company is the best there is. They saved me so many times, I cannot even keep count. Now I recommend it to all my friends, and none of them have complained about it. The writers here are excellent."