Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CEMENT INDUSTRY Selçuk Çankaya1 , Simge Çankaya2 1 Wellpoint Health, Safety & Environmental (HSE) 2 Kocaeli University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Kocaeli, Turkey Abstract Cement is the basic material for constructions which is made from a mixture of elements that are found in natural materials such as limestone, marl and/or clay. Cement manufacturing is an energy and resource intensive process with both local and global environmental, health and safety impacts. Because of these impacts, ensuring healthy and safe working conditions for employees is one of the most significant issues for the cement industry. In this review, cement manufacturing process was clarified briefly and potential hazards and their risks in cement industry were investigated. Key words: Cement, cement dust, cement manufacturing, occupational health and safety 1. INTRODUCTION Occupational health and safety has become a public health priority in industrialized countries and a primary concern, especially in high risk industries (Rachid et. al. 2015). Cement manufacturing is one of these industries. Cement is one of the most widely used construction material on earth. Because cement has been used commonly, its health effects have become an important issue both for employees and the environment (Koh et. al. 2011). In addition to the various health hazards, cement workers are especially exposed to dust which causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon at various production process such as quarrying, crushing, raw material grinding, blending, kiln burning, cement grinding and packaging in cement industry (Meo 2004). Therefore, ensuring healthy and safe working conditions for employees and contractors is a fundamental key to corporate social responsibility, and is one of the most important issues for the cement industry (WBCSD 2004). In addition, with the increasing complexity of industrial tissue and with the rapidity that the techniques develop in the big factories, risks assessment becomes a crucial and strategic answer to preserve workers health and safety on the one hand and to maintaining a qualified labor on the other hand (Tomar 2014). The main objectives of this literature review are to define specific hazards in cement manufacturing process and investigate the health and safety risks from manufacturing process. 2. CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS Cement is a fine powder that consists of a mixture of hydraulic cement materials comprising primarily calcium silicates, aluminates and aluminoferrites. More than 30 raw materials, which are divided into four basic categories (calcium, silica, alumina, iron), are known to be used in the manufacture of portland cement (EPA 1994). These raw materials are presented in Table 1. Page 243 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net Table 1. Raw materials necessary for cement manufacturing (God n.d.) Calcium Iron Silica Alumina Sulfate Alkali waste Blast-furnace flue dust Calcium silicate Aluminum-ore refuse Anhydrite Aragonite Clay Cement rock Bauxite Calcium sulfate Calcite Iron ore Clay Cement rock Gypsum Cement-kiln dust Mill scale Fly ash Clay Cement rock Ore washings Fuller’s earth Copper slag Chalk Pyrite cinders Limestone Fly ash Clay Shale Marl Fuller’s earth Fuller’s earth Ore washings Granodiorite Limestone Quartzite Limestone Marble Rice-hull ash Loess Marl Sand Ore washings Seashells Sandstone Shale Shale Shale Slag Slag Slag Staurolite Traprock Cement manufacturing process comprises of crushing, grinding, raw meal preparation, kiln burning and cement production basically. The following figure shows the process flow of a typical cement factory (Figure 1). Page 244 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net Figure 1: Simplified process flow of a typical cement manufacturing (Kema, Inc. 2005) Quarrying of limestone and is performed by using explosives and all of the raw materials (limestone, marn, clay…etc) are transported to the plant. These raw materials are crushed, finely ground, and blended to the correct chemical composition. The fine raw material is fed into a large rotary kiln (cylindrical 4 furnace) which rotates while the contents are heated to extremely high (EPA 2010). The most commonly used kiln fuels are coal, natural gas, and occasionally oil (EPA 1994). Rotary kiln is heated by a 2000°C flame inside of it. The kiln is slightly inclined to allow for the materials to slowly reach the other end, where it is quickly cooled to 100-200°C (CEMBUREAU). Following re-cooling, the clinker is stored in silos , and then transformed into cement by using gypsum and other additives according to the production requirements. Finally, the cement is stored in silos and loaded on a truck or packaged into bags (LAFARGE). 3. CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF THE HAZARDS IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING Cement manufacturing processes including health and safety risks were classified as follows: • Quarrying • Crushing • Clinker production • Milling processes at raw mill, cement milling and coal milling • Material transport • Filtering • Storage • Loading and delivery of final products Page 245 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net • Fuel storage activities • Use of hazardous material • Generating units (TRIA Project). In Table 2, main hazard factors associated with cement manufacturing processes are presented. As shown from Table 2, main hazardous factors in quarrying of raw materials can be defined as dust and noise. Noise emits during balsting, crushing and operation of conveyors in quarrying operations. Noise sources in cement manufacturing plant mainly include milling machines, crushers, electric motors (Canfeng 2012). Table 2. Main hazard factors associated with cement manufacturing processes (Cumbane 2011). Cement Manufacturing Process Main Hazard Factor Quarrying Dust, Noise Raw material preparation Dust, toxic gas (CO, CO2, NOx, SO2), noise, heat pollution Clinker burning Dust, toxic gas, high heat radiation, high worload Clinker cooling and cement milling Auxiliary materials and additives, dust, heat, noise Packaging, storage and delivery Dust, high workload Dust emissions are one of the most significant impacts of cement manufacturing and associated with handling and storage of raw materials (including crushing and grinding of raw materials), solid fuels, transportation of materials (e.g. by trucks or conveyor belts), kiln systems, clinker coolers, and mills, including clinker and limestone burning and packaging/bagging activities (IFC 2007). Packaging is the most polluting process (in terms of dust) in cement production (Cumbane 2011). Nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions are emitted from the high temperature combustion process of the cement kiln. Carbon dioxide defined as greenhouse gas is mainly associated with fuel combustion and with the decarbonation of limestone (IFC 2007). In addition to specific hazards, there are also general hazards in all of the cement manufacturing process such as safe behavior, work equipment, safety labeling, personal protective equipment (PPE), manual load handling (TRIA Project). Typical injury causes in cement plants are defined as slips, trips and falls (29%); falling or moving objects (19%) and lifting, overload and exertion (18%) as shown from Figure 2. Fatalities are the most serious tragedy that can happen in the cement Industry. 79% of all fatalities arise from 3 main causes: Traffic & Mobile Plant (43%), Falls from Heights & Items falling (21%) and Caught in Moving/Starting Equipment (15%). It was reported that contractors and young/temporary employees are high risk categories in cement manufacturing plants (WBCSD 2004). Page 246 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net Figure 2. Injuries by causes (WBCSD 2004). An example of potential hazards and preventive actions in a cement manufacturing plant was presented in Table 3. Table 3. Potential hazars preventive actions in cement manufacturing plant (Adapted from OSHA) Potential Hazard Preventive Action Slip, Trips & Falls Good housekeeping Sufficient lighting Tidy work place Identify and fix fall hazards, such as slippery surfaces, damaged ladders and walkways Confined areas (Lack of oxygen, Poisonous gas, fumes or vapour, Fire and explosions, dust, hot conditions…) Must be avoided entry to confined spaces Remote cameras can be used Permit-to-work Cleaning before entry Provision of ventilation Testing the air Provision of lightings Electric Each panel should be labeled Safe electrical equipment should be purchased and used Page 247 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net Appropriate PPE Training of personnel Falling/Moving Objects Tidy workplace Avoid working beneath cuber elevators, conveyor belts PPE (Personel protective equipment) usage Fire (conveyor belts, electrical cables, fuels, waste combustible materials…) Proper waste disposal good housekeeping Heat detectors usage Fire extinguisher Fire fighting procedures must be Working at height Usage of appropriate ladder and scaffolder Usage of Fall protection system Usage of appropriate PPE Hot/cold surfaces (hot surface burns…) Usage of appropriate PPE Noise and Vibration Technologies of noise attenuation, absorption and insulation Appropriate hearing protection Excavation sites All excavations in the plant should be surrounded with a handrail Vehicles Avoid overloading Make sure back-up alarms on all vehicles are functioning Be sure that trucks and other vehicles are in good working order, including audible back-up warning signals, before operating them Safety guards of machines Those parts must be provided with safety guards or devices Usage of appropriate guards (interlocking, automatic, self adjusting, two hand control devices…etc) Maintaining of conveyor belt systems Manuel handling Must be looked out for sharp edges, splinters and nails When lifting heavy objects, legs sohuld be used as much as possible to save back muscles Tag Out – Lock Out (Electrical or Process isolation) Electrical isolating switches must be turned off Dust Usage of automated packing machines Page 248 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net Usage of enclosed conveyors Storage of crushed raw materials in closed bays Appropriate respiratory protection should be worn Cement dust Usage of respirator to minimize inhalation of cement dust Usage of soap and water avoid skin damage Avoid exposure to cement dust to prevent bronchitis and silicosis 4. CONCLUSIONS The cement manufacturing industry is labor intensive and uses large scale and potentially hazardous manufacturing processes (Marlowe and Mansfield 2002). Therefore, health and safety is the number one priority in for the cement industry for its employees, contractors, end-users and those who are neighbors to its operations (Tomar 2014.) Exposure to dust and high temperatures, contact with allergic substances, and noise exposure can be defined as hazards associated with health; while falling / impact with objects; hot surface burns; and transportation, working at height, slip/trips/falls can be defined as hazards associated with safety. It is the most critical issue that ensuring a health and safety culture in workplaces. For this purpose, health and safety policy should be adapted with other policies of the company. Additionally, risk management policy of company should be developed, and risk assessment should be performed regularly and efficiently. REFERENCES Canfeng, Z, Shujie, Y, Dong, L 2012, ‘Comprehensive Control of the Noise Occupational Hazard in Cement Plant’, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 43, pp. 186 – 190 CEMBUREAU (The Europan Cement Association), ‘Cement manufacturing process’, viewed 3 January 2015, . Cumbane, AJ 2011, ‘Environmental Health and Safety Aspects in the Cement Industry’, , viewed 27 March 2015. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 1994, ‘Emission factor documentation for AP-42, section 11.6: Portland Cement Manufacturing, Final report, EPA Contract 68-D2-0159, MRI Project No. 4601-01. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 2010, ‘Available and emerging technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Portland cement industry’, Sector Policies and Programs Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Gad, EA n.d., ‘The Cement Manufacturing Process’, viewed 30 March 2015, . IFC (International Finance Corporation) 2007, ‘Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines for Cement and Lime Manufacturing’, viewed 3 March 2015, < http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/f74848804951d04eb75cb719583b6d16/Final+- +Cement+and+Lime+Manufacturing.pdf?MOD=AJPERES> Kema, Inc. 2005, ‘Industrial Case Study: The Cement Industry’, Report No. PGE0251.01. Page 249 Ecology & Safety ISSN 1314-7234, Volume 9, 2015 Journal of International Scientific Publications www.scientific-publications.net Koh, D-H, Kim, T-W, Jang, SH, Ryu, H-W 2011, ‘Cement industry and cancer’, Safety and Health at Work, Vol.2, pp 243-249. LAFARGE, ‘Manufacturing Process, viewed 4 March 2015, Marlowe, I and Mansfield, D 2004, ‘Substudy 10: Environment, Health & Safety Performance Improvement’, World Business Council For Sustainable Development. Meo, SA 2004, ‘Health hazards of cement dust’, Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 25, pp 1153-1159. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration), ‘Worker Safety Series Concrete Manufacturing’, viewed 17 March 2015, Rachid, C, Ion V, Irina, C, Mohamed, B 2015, ‘Preserving and improving the safety and health at work: Case of Hamma Bouziane cement plant (Algeria)’, Safety Science, Vol. 76, pp. 145–150. Tomar, MK 2014, ‘Study of Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Aspects in Major Cement Manufacturing Industry (Ultratech Cement Limited.)’, Journal of Environment and Earth Science, Vol. 4 , pp. 117-120. TRIA Project, ‘Training material for assessing the risk in cement industry’, viewed 26 March 2015, WBCSD (World Business Council For Sustainable Development) 2004, ‘Health and safety in the cement industry: Examples of good practice’, Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI), Version 1.0. Page 250 View publication stats

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