# Principles of Sound Reasoning PHI paper

Paper topic 1
Contrast the notions of validity and truth in terms of the following two syllogisms
(a) Some arguments with mood and figure IAI-3 are not valid for no arguments with mood and figure OAO-3 ae valid
(b) No arguments with mood and figure IEO-4 are valid and some arguments with mood and figure IEO-4 are not sound so we know that some valid arguments are not sound
Put both arguments in standard logical form and provide their mood and figure. Determine the validity of each argument by both a Venn diagram and by Salmon’s rules (provide every single one of Salmon’s rules. You do not need to discuss Salmon’s rules, just apply them.) Explain why each statement in each argument is true or false. Is either argument sound?
READ THE HINTS. If you ignore some piece of information that is discussed in the hints, YOU WILL BE MARKED DOWN.
Paper hints:
1. You must put these arguments in standard logical form as categorical syllogisms. This means that you must use the variables S,P. and M. You must also provide a dictionary or instance along with the form. I want to know what the S,P, and M designate.
2. S,P, and M may be fairly long. You will be using terms such as these: arguments with true premises and a false conclusion, arguments with mood and figure AOO-2, etc. These are a bit longer than terms such as ‘dogs’ and ‘cats’.
3. When you discuss IAI-3, OAO-3, and IEO-4, provide the forms. I want to see that you can provide the form of the argument when you are given the mood and figure. DO NOT DISCUSS THESE FORMS UNTIL YOU DISCUSS THE RELEVANT PREMISES IN THE ARGUMENT. You should not start out your paper by presenting these forms.
4. Remember, in this class, enthymemes are always valid. If you have an invalid form for syllogism (a), you made a mistake.
5. When you discuss why each premise and conclusion is true, give a paragraph to each statement. This way, you are less likely to skimp on your discussion. Don’t discuss every statement in an argument in one paragraph. It is too easy to jumble points together if you discuss everything in one paragraph.
6. I expect to see examples when they are relevant. If you do not provide examples, you are marked down. In many cases, examples are the actual proof or evidence that you need to prove a statement is true or falseFor this paper, THE EXAMPLES MUST BE CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS.
7. While you need to prove that arguments (a) and (b) are valid or invalid by both Salmon’s rules and a Venn diagram, you can prove that IAI-3. OAO-3 and IEO-4 are valid or invalid by just one technique. You can use Salmon’s rules (use all the rules) or a Venn diagram.
8. You are given a sample paper and an outline for this paper. It is a good idea to look at these. But these are not religious documents. Follow these documents intelligently.
9. In your paper, arguments should be single-spaced and indented. Other than this, I don’t care if you single-space or double-space your paper.
10. Good writing counts. You will be graded on how well the paper is organized and written. The material you learned in your composition classes hasn’t become obsolete just because you are discussing arguments.

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