# research literature questions

Answer a list of research literature questions (shown on requirement) based on a research papers (answer the questions one by one)

1)  One year there was a hailstorm up in central Brevard County.  Each golf ball-sized chunk of hail rains    down with a mass of 0.025 kg mass and impacts your car with a velocity of 400 m/s.

A) Calculate the kinetic energy with which the hail strikes the steel hood of your car.

B)  Sketch the stress vs. strain behavior of cold drawn 1040 carbon steel.  Label the

modulus of elasticity (E), the yield stress (YS), the ultimate compressive strength (UCS), and the

rupture stress (RS).  Use your textbook to determine the modulus of elasticity (E), the yield stress

(YS), the ultimate compressive strength (UCS).  Use the values with metric units.  Some     properties will depend on the “cold drawn” treatment; some will not.

C) Determine the amount of energy (or work) that the steel hood of your car could absorb before

being plastically deformed.  Assume that the cross-sectional area impacted by the hail is                  0.0005 m2 and that the thickness of the steel is 0.005 m.

D)Determine the amount of energy (or work) that the steel hood of your car could absorb before

being fractured.  Assume that the cross-sectional area impacted by the hail is 0.0005 m2

and that the thickness of the steel is 0.005 m.

2) A silica (silicon oxide – use glass’s properties if necessary) space shuttle tile is bonded to silicone adhesive (caulk).  Look up the coefficients of thermal expansion for both materials.  Assume that the strain at the interface between the silica and the silicone can be calculated from the difference in the CTE’s. Calculate the strain at the interface and the stress at the interface when the adhesive/silica interface is heated from 298 K to 348 K.  The silicone adhesive is brittle.  Will the adhesive crack, given the aforementioned data?

3) Rupture disks are used in many chemical process plants to provide pressure protection without leaking any gas to the environment.  Relief valves, by contrast, are only sold with pipe thread fittings and are, therefore, unsuitable for gas handling applications unless welded around.  The plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Si thin films takes place via the following reaction:

SiH4 (gas) –> Si (solid) + 2 H2 (gas)

This reaction takes place at 10-6 atm (under vacuum) and 400oC.  The 316 stainless steel reactor vessel, however, must also be pressurized with a few atmospheres of inert gas monthly to do leak testing and must be pressurized with inert gas to 1 atm after each deposition run before the Si thin film wafers can be removed from the reactor.  In this case, a cold drawn and annealed 316 stainless steel rupture disk is pre-indented such that it will fail at a pressure of 8 atm (1 atm = 101325 Pa).  The maximum delivery pressure that the SiH4 pressure regulator can deliver is 10-3 atm, but the maximum delivery pressure on the N2 regulator is 15 atm.  The melting point of 316 stainless steel is 1520oC. SiH4 is highly toxic.  Both SiH4 and hydrogen are flammable and explosive.

A) What factors might lead to failure of the reactor and/or rupture disk?

B) Associate each factor from part A with a failure mechanism.

C) What can you do to prevent the reactor and/or rupture disk from failing?  What can you also do

to prevent the release of toxic, flammable, and explosive gas?

4) Four recent CHE alumni have gone to work for Norfolk Naval Shipyards to build nuclear submarines.

A) What factors might lead to failure of a nuclear submarine?

B) Associate each factor from part A with a failure mechanism.

C) What can you do to prevent the nuclear submarine from failing?

5) You have an Al 2024 alloy with predominantly (Al) and some Q-CuAl2 (see arrow at 300oC and 3 wt. % Cu).  Most of the Q-CuAl2 has gotten larger and diffused to the grain boundaries to give you the microstructure shown below on the right side.  After testing the hardness of the sample you made, you determine that it is too soft and not mechanically strong enough.  Being specific regarding temperatures and times (or endpoint conditions), develop a “recipe” to make the Al 2024 alloy as hard as it can get.  Show microstructural diagrams after each step.

6) Prof. Engblom from Mechanical Engineering works with plastic wood, a composite material of wood shavings and recycled plastic.  If plastic wood is brittle and has an ultimate compressive strength of 10 MPa, an elastic modulus of 700 MPa, and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.25,

A) Calculate the bulk modulus for plastic wood.

B) Calculate the maximum strain that can be put on plastic wood.

C) Assuming that plastic wood is isotropic, calculate the maximum hydrostatic pressure that can be

put on plastic wood.

D) If the plastic wood has a fracture toughness of 0.1 MPa*m0.5, calculate the maximum

crack length if the stress on the plastic wood is 2 MPa.

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