Strategies of Security ImplementationIn today’s fast-paced, agile software development environment, how can we make sure security is implemented into the design? What are some of the key strategies?Use facts and examples to support your answer.APA style.Provide references

Biomechanics

Gait Asymmetry with Lower-Limb Prosthetics

Introduction (3 pages) –

Lower limb prosthetics

Introduction/BackgroundIntroduce your topic and the relevant population

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Summarize the current research surrounding your topic
[?]

Highlight strengths and weaknesses of previous studies
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What gaps exist in the literature? What questions are left unanswered?
[?]

What is your research question/objective and associated hypotheses?
[?]

“A human with unilateral lower-limb prosthetics may experience several gait features such as joint mechanics, ground force, step length, or even step time. A big issue that results from this could be different leg mass or inertia resulting in a loss of energy in any type of power movement. Things that can be researched to minimize this issue could be the build of the prosthetic itself and if it absorbs more force than the other lower-limb, if the fitting of the prosthetic results in more of cushion than the spongy bone with the knee, or if the intact leg is simply taking more of the force. The aim of this research project would be a way to figure out why this can occur in unilateral lower-limb prosthetics, how it can be avoided, or ways to minimize the issue.”

These need to be supported by your literature search
Made up Trial (1-2 pages)– motion capture trial at widener

Trial Analysis

Peter Gabriel Adamczyk and Arthur D. Kuo ran a clinical trial involving mechanisms of gait asymmetry due to push-off deficiency amputees in 2014. The first thing that was done was they devised a dynamic walking model to predict the effects of unilateral impaired push-off on bipedal gait. The two researchers used this model to create several different ways to compensate for reduced push off. These compensations then lead to several gait pattern asymmetries, which were compared to data from human subjects with unilateral gait pattern asymmetries. The goal of the innovation was to assess if asymmetries were caused by weak push-off or were instead the effect of secondary causes. Shown below in the figure was the pendulum gait. It has two pendulum like legs that can swing freely (about the hips) that were restricted to the sagittal plane only. It had mass distribution like a human. On level ground, it used impulsive push-off from the trailing leg just before the heel strike to replicate a dynamic walking gait. It could also be powered through hip extension torque on the stance leg. It was nearly identical to setting a ground slope which could be used to model a virtual trunk for hip power. The study showed that the compensation came from adding hip power. This compensation however was restricted to produce the same stride length, and normal walking speed (about 1.25m/s).

Figure One

The figure above shows the device created to replicate different ways that humans with lower-limb unilateral prosthetics compensate for gait asymmetry.

The model for this used 63% of normal push-off work performed by one leg. This number was decided because of the test subjects used for the trial. It was concluded that possible compensations may be divided into two broad categories. The first was that people performing more positive work to speed the prosthetic-side stance phase (either from greater intact side push-off or prosthetic side hip work). The other compensation is to perform positive work to speed the intact-side stance phase. It restores the speed lost from reduced prosthetic side push-off. The researchers also concluded that there are four main predicted consequences of impairment. The first is that reduced prosthetic side push-off should result in greater intact side collision work. The second was that there will be an asymmetry in forward speed of the center of mass (COM) at a mid-stance. The third is that uni-lateral impairment should cause asymmetry in stance durations. The final is that the same effect is effect is expected to cause an overall reduction in COM velocity symmetry throughout the two stance phases. Figure two below shows the COM velocity fluctuation and step-to-step transition work.

Figure Two

The figure above shows the collision work between amputees and non-amputees. It also shows the typical stance and the difference in stance style between amputees vs. Non-amputees.

When performing the trial, the two compared walking in unilateral transtibial amputees against the predictions from the models. They tested a range of speeds to determine whether amputees increase push-off at a higher speed as non-amputees do and whether the impact of the impairment increases. Subjects walked at various speeds from .7 to 1.6 m*s^ -1 on an instrumented treadmill. This was done by the subjects wearing their prescribed prosthetics and their normal shoes. They measured the ground reaction forces and from that estimated the center of mass mechanics. This was then compared to the results against the predicted asymmetries from the models. These included total work, collision work, mid-stance COM velocity, stance time, step length, and COM velocity symmetry. The researchers also measured step length by recording motion capture trajectories of markers on the lateral malleolus of each leg. 11 amputee subjects were tested with a mass of 84.1 kg ranging from 68.6 to 99.2 kg. The length of the leg ranged from .827 to .984m. These subjects walked at speeds .7, 1. 1.3. and 1.6 m*s^-1. To ensure a baseline of comparison was at hand, 10 non-amputee subjects were also tested. These subjects had a mass ranging from 57.8 to 98.9 kg. These subjects had a leg length ranging from .864 to 1.040m. These subjects walked at speeds of .7, 1.1, 1.25, 1.4 and 1.6 m*s^-1. The first seven clean strides from each subject were computed and then averaged which allowed metrics across the strides. Statistical tests were then performed to identify significant asymmetries. The three groups of legs analyzed against each other were prosthetic legs, intact legs, and non-amputee legs. After these were compared, significant difference were allowed to be concluded from marginal means of each leg type. Below in the figure shows all the data collected for this trial.

Figure Three

Above in the figure is all of the data collected from the trial.

In section A, involving vertical ground reaction forces, it shows asymmetries between groups. As speeds increase, the graph shows that peak forces in both amputees and non-amputees increase but it is also important to see that the peaks are higher on the intact side of the amputees. In section B of the graph, involving the COM work rate, it shows negative collision work at the beginning of stance and positive push-off work at the end of the stance. At all speeds, push-off was lower on the prosthetic side of amputees, and collision was much greater was much greater on the intact side compared to non-amputees. In Section C of the graph, COM shows symmetry of COM velocities in non-amputees, and asymmetry in amputees. The asymmetry is prominent in forward speed during prosthetic-side vs. Intact-side stance.

Proposed Trial

When coming together and discussing all the research found, it became apparent to the group that the motion capture lab at Widener would be a perfect place to hold a clinical trial to try and further investigate gait asymmetry within amputees who have lower-limb prosthetics. The ideal number of subjects would be anywhere from 10-20 who have lower-limb unilateral prosthetics. With this, it would also be optimal to have the same number of test subjects that are people without any type of prosthetic. Each test subject would have various biomarkers on their lower limbs. The subjects would be wearing their normal prosthetic, but in this trial, shoes would not be worn by anyone to collect data without any interreference from variation of differential of shoes. The biomarkers would be in locations such as where the extensor tendons are (top of the foot), the malleolus, the tibia, the knee, the thigh, and the quad. These would be on both feet to be able to compare non-intact legs, prosthetic legs, and non-amputee legs. The trial would require the subjects to start on the motion capture track, to show initial push off force when taking the first step, and then proceeding the subjects to walk the duration of the track (about 10 yards) at various speeds. The average walking speed is about 1.4m/s. The subjects would walk at speeds such as 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 m/s. Each of these speeds would have three trials each and then would be averaged. The averages of these results would then be analyzed. Different results that would be analyzed are comparisons in initial push-off speed, different positions in body composition (hip height with amputee legs vs. Intact and non-amputee hip heights), difference in forces on the malleolus/tibia/quadriceps, and overall comfortability with the speeds. Initial push-off forces could be a reason for as to why compensation is needed. This could be because the prosthetic side must make up for forces lost during the initial push-off and it having to play catch up with the other intact side.

Innovation for gait asymmetry (1-2page) – ahmed

Discussion/Conclusion (1-2 pages)

The proposed trial takes guidance from research trials that were conducted and reported.  The goal is to gather information regarding how gait is affected because of amputeed lower limbs.  Biomarkers on the body, as stated previously, are going to be important to the data collecting process.  Due to the different body shapes that will be present, not only in the different testing groups, but throughout the entire trial, the biomarkers will need to be individually placed based on the person.  The location of the tendons would need to be found on the subject, and the distance would need to be measured from a point of reference.  The point of reference should be consistent throughout the trials and recorded.  The misplacement, or difference in location, of the biomarkers will lead to error in data collection.  The path followed in the trials must remain consistent, and the speed of the subjects must be monitored during the trials to assure accurate results. 

References:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2743731/

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2018/5190816/

https://journals.lww.com/jpojournal/Fulltext/2010/01000/Differences_in_the_Spatiotemporal_Parameters_of.5.aspx

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335968/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646606/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18242995/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11494181/
Topic Statement

A human with unilateral lower-limb prosthetics may experience several gait features such as joint mechanics, ground force, step length, or even step time. A big issue that results from this could be different leg mass or inertia resulting in a loss of energy in any type of power movement. Things that can be researched to minimize this issue could be the build of the prosthetic itself and if it absorbs more force than the other lower-limb, if the fitting of the prosthetic results in more of cushion than the spongy bone with the knee, or if the intact leg is simply taking more of the force. The aim of this research project would be a way to figure out why this can occur in unilateral lower-limb prosthetics, how it can be avoided, or ways to minimize the issue.  

So what i want to do is

what you have to do is innovate a product that would help with gait asymmetry but thinking about it now, it seems like it would be way too difficult to do that. I know other groups just analyzed data and came up with a trial. So if you will do analyzed data and write two papers about it and also two or 3 slides in PowerPoint with speaker note on the slides explaining what i shoud say 

also i will give you an example of PowerPoint.

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