Please check the following reference (Povey & Allen 2003) – You added in the reference list :Povey, D. and Allen, J. (2003). “Violent crime in England and Wales in J. Simmons and T. Dodd (eds) Crime in England and Wales 2002/2003”.Home Off i c e Statistical Bulletin07/03. London: Home Office.BUTthe information belowis not found in Povey & Alley 2003 (ways by which an abuser can offend his partner). Power and Control model ( A model of Domestic Violence) – yr essay copy, page 4 and 5 : The power and control model developed by Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP), Minnesota, explains violence against women. The power and control wheel describes the type of violent behaviors and the control log describes the belief systems which support such violent behaviors. Following are ways by which an abuser can offend his partner(Povey & Allen, 2003): a.Threatening : Threatening to hurt her, leave her, commit suicide, report her to welfare, making her drop the charges and pressurizing her to do illegal things. b.Economic Abuse: Preventing her from doing her job, creating situations wherein she is forced to ask for money, give her an allowance, taking away her money, not letting her know the family income and have access to it. c.Using male privilege Making her treat like a servant, taking all the important and big decisions in the family. Acting like the king of house and acting as if h is the one who will define the roles of himself and his partner. d.Using Children Making her feel guilty about the children, using the children to relay messages and threatening to take her children away are some of the examples. e.Using Intimidation Scaring her away by using such looks, gestures and actions, smashing and breaking objects, destroying her belongings, abusing pets, showing weapons are even considered. f.Using Emotional abuse Putting her down, making her feel bad about herself, calling her names, making her feel as if she is mad, playing mind games, insulting her and making her feel guilty (Povey & Allen, 2003). g.Using Isolation Taking a control of everything, what she does, who she meets and talks to, where she goes, what she reads, restricting her external involvement, using jealousy to justify his actions. h.Minimizing, denying and blaming Pretending as if abuse is something not very serious and not considering her concerns regarding it. Saying as if no abuse had happened, saying that she was behind causing all that abuse and shifting its responsibility to her (Povey & Allen, 2003).
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