Hospital emergency departments continue to be used as a source of primary medical care by large numbers of the community’s medically underserved population. What are the implications of this practice for the patients, and on health care costs and quality of care? What would you propose as a means to change this situation?


Welcome to Module 3! Module 3 presents the major elements of non-hospital entities. Ambulatory (outpatient) care is the predominant mode of health care delivery in the US. As the population ages, there is tremendous growth in the need for long-term care services. Lastly, the needs of the mentally ill require a wide array of mental health services. All three of these non-hospital entities will be explored in this module.

Module 3 provided an in-depth analysis of non-hospital entities (ambulatory care, long-term care, and behavioral health services), with a focus on how the move away from hospital-based care has affected the healthcare organization and the community that it serves. This Module reviewed the major elements of ambulatory (outpatient) care. Ambulatory care encompasses a diverse and growing sector of the health care delivery system. Physician services are the chief component; however, hospital outpatient and emergency departments, community health centers, departments of health, and voluntary agencies also contribute important services, particularly for the uninsured and vulnerable populations. Ambulatory surgery is a continuously expanding component of ambulatory care, as new technology enables more procedures to be performed safely and economically outside the hospital.

The number of Americans requiring long-term care services is increasing. Advances in medical care have made a longer life span not only possible but more probable, even in the presence of ongoing chronic disease and disability. This module provided an overview of the diverse array of long-term care services presently provided in institutional, community, and home-based settings. Particular attention was given to the long-term care needs of older adults because they are the fastest growing proportion of the population in the United States today and are the major consumers of long-term care services.

Lastly, this module described the clinical characteristics of people who receive behavioral health services. Historic trends and forces affecting the distribution and kinds of care were examined and compared with epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders to hypothesize whether national needs for mental health care were being met. Evolution in the science and technology available for the treatment of psychiatric disorders was reviewed briefly. Opportunities for improvement and evidence of the impact of managed care on effective mental health service delivery were examined.

Demographic shifts will shape the future. An increasing number of debates and discussions are surfacing around the social, economic, and health implications of demographic and social change. All of these concerns present new challenges for public policy, government, business, and the health care industry. Several critical issues and trends deserve attention-the aging baby boomers, the increasing ethnic and radical diversity, the growing disparity between the richest and the poorest households, and the future burden of disease.

Isn’t note taking just for high school students? Why is it important to take notes no matter what age? Note taking is a way to retain important information that you will need to know at a later date. Taking notes ensures you are concentrating on the material you are reading or listening to. However, note taking is a skill. Key to taking any notes is a system in which information can be understood at a later date. There are many different ways to notes. One common system is called Cornell Notes. This system is used throughout high schools, universities, and businesses around the world. Remember that note taking is not simply words on a page but drawings help you visualize information.

 Module Goals

  • Analyze the historic trends and forces affecting the distribution and kinds of care received in non-hospital entities
  • Evaluate the influence of ambulatory care on access to quality health care for uninsured and vulnerable populations
  • Assess the diverse array of long-term care services presently provided in institutional, community, and home-based settings
  • Hypothesize whether national needs for mental health care are being met, based on epidemiologic data regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders
  • Examine the impact of future trends as the focus of health care delivery systems shift from the hospital setting.

Goals Alignment:

University Mission Based Outcomes – 2, 3, 5

Program Learning Goals – 3, 4, 8

Course Learning Objectives – 1, 3, 5, 7

 Learning Materials

Required Resources: 

  • Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett. Read Chapters 5, 9, & 10.

Additional Resources:

  • Jennifer DesRochers, (2012, Jul. 26). How to take Cornell notes [Video].
  • Learn English with Emma (engVid), (2016, Aug. 25). How to study efficiently: The Cornell Notes Method [Video].
  • Verbal to Visual, (2016, Dec. 20). Improving Cornell Notes with Sketchnoting Techniques [Video].
  • TEDx Talks, (2016, Nov. 29). How to draw to remember more | Graham Shaw | TEDxVienna [Video].

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