You must make a two-leg trip.
- First, you must drive from L.A. to Cookeville, Tennessee. Describe how this may be accomplished using “direct-acting” contingencies only. Include the issues you would face.
- After getting to Cookeville, you must then travel to Webster City, IA. But while in Cookeville, you read Malott’s book and now fully understand rule-governed behavior. Describe how this would change the way you travel to IA. Consult a map, and include/name at least three major highways and six cities you could pass through on your way. Post a minimum of 500 wds. total for A and B
Running Head:BEHAVIOR THERAPY 9
Title: Behavior Therapy
1. In your own words, explain the differences between pos & neg punishment, and extinction, and give an example of each from your work or home setting. Post a minimum of 300 words.
There are various ways that a person can be punished after doing something is not following partial standards. Some of the punishments techniques used are aimed at improving the behavior of the person or just teaching the person a lesson as well as showing other people that going against the set principles is wrong. When a manager, for instance, is not pleased by the behavior of a particular person, he/she might decide to punish the person. The most common techniques of punishments that are used to punish people include the negative and the positive punishment as well as the extinction technique.
Positive punishment is among the most common type of punishment that is used in most cases. This is a kind of punishment where the person who had done something unpleasant is made to undergo some discomforts by which make the person to change the banding behavior (Spiegler, 2015). This is directly aimed at making the person fear or dislike doing something bad in fear of undergoing a tough or unpleasant experience. For example, when a student fails his/her examinations, the teacher can make him clean the class alone.
The negative punishment, on the other hand, entails taking away something that used to motivate a person after he/she has done something wrong. Everyone is willing to keep something that makes him/her happy. When the thing is removed from someone, he/she may feel unhappy or a bit challenged. For example, when an employee in an organization fails to meet the set goals, he can be demoted at his workplace.
Extinction, on the other hand, involves a situation where even if a person does something bad, there is nothing is done to the person. This is a unique way of punishing people because it makes the person individually rectifies his behavior. For example, a situation where an employee reports to work late then the manager just ignores it and does not punish the person nor even talk about it.
2. Briefly discuss how shaping and differential reinforcement are used in tandem to change behavior, and give an example of how this might be done. Post a minimum of 300 words.
There are various ways in which the good behavior of a person can be promoted and encouraged. It is good to recognize and also reward good behavior that has been made by a person. When one’s good effort is recognized, the person feels more motivated and encouraged to perform better in the future. Shaping is one of the basic techniques that are used in changing or influencing good behavior in a person. This entails a process where a person is rewarded after achieving a particular thing even if he/she does not perfectly meet the target or the expectation. This is where a person is rewarded for a good trail and a great willingness to achieve or perfectly meet the set target. In a real-life situation, a human being tries to achieve various things. To help them remain in the truck, they set targets and goals which they aim at reaching after a particular time. Some of the set goals are very great and they require a lot of effort for them to be perfectly achieved. However, in one way or the other, the set goals are not achieved as they were initially set. Failure to hit the target is not always associated with laziness or lack of willingness but in some cases, the person trying to meet the target might lack the potential or capability to do so. In that way, the person might miss the target slightly and the manager can decide to reward the person for the achievement. For example, if a salesperson has been assigned a duty to sell five cars per month, the person can sell three then the manager decides to reward him/her for the good trial.
On the other hand, differential reinforcement involves rewarding a person after he/she has perfectly met the target. For example, if the salesperson is required to sell five vehicles per month and he achieves this, the manager rewards him/her.
3. Is aggression behavior learned? Discuss/explain 2 reasons for your answer, give 1 example. Post a minimum of 200 words.
Yes, aggression behavior is not leaned. Aggression is when a person or an animal becomes very hostile and can easily cause hard to others (Huesmann, 2013). In some situations, a person might start acting in very strange ways such as fighting, verbally abusing people or even forcing people to do various things. Aggression is mostly caused by fear, stress as well as anxiety. The main reason why aggression is not learned is the fact that the causal factors of it are natural and cannot be controlled by external forces but can only be controlled by the person. For example, a person might become very aggressive when he/she is in great fear. For example, when one is attacked by robbers, one can become very aggressive towards them and try to attack them in fear that they might harm him/her. In addition to that, when someone is stressed, he/she might start showing aggressive behavior to the people around him/her. A good example is when security personnel such as a military person has been in the war zone for a long period then he/she is stressed up, the person can start becoming aggressive to other people. Besides, aggression is not leaned because aggressive people just show aggressiveness at particular times but it is not a behavior to them (Hantula & Wells, 2014).
4. Describe a behavior you engage in, analyze it in terms of the three-term contingency, explaining the relationship among the discriminative stimulus(S-D) – behavior – outcome (reinforcer), and how this relationship would be different from S-Delta as the antecedent stimulus condition, vs. S-D. Post a minimum of 300 words.
I like playing football and every time an not at work, I go to the nearby stadium to play with my fellow friends. This is a behavior that I had for a long period since I was a teenager. By then, I highly wanted to become a professional footballer and gain a lot of popularity across the world. I would practice day in day out still aiming at representing my country in international competition. At school, I was among the best football players in the situation that motivated me to try and achieve my goals in life. At school, I was often rewarded for been a special and unique player the fact that made me be recruited by a local football club. My professional football career made a very important turn when I had a call to represent my country in international tournaments when I was just 19 years of age. Later on, I got a very serious injury which ruined my professional football career. I later joined the nursing profession. However, I still have a great liking of football and I hope that in the future, I will be able to represent my country in great tournaments and also play for huge and famous clubs. The reinforcers that make me keep practicing football skills is to represent my country in international football tournaments and also play for big and famous football clubs.
In the S-Delta (SD), usually, the behavior is not reinforced. In my case, there are some instances where I am not motivated by various factors. The injury that I got greatly affected me and it has made it almost impossible for me to gain the stamina and power that I had before I got the injury. This is why at times; I do not have any reinforcement even when I am constantly practicing and exercising in the field.
5. Explain/describe how a DRO procedure could be used in tandem with a positive reinforcement procedure to reduce a behavior problem: Define the behavior and describe the methods you would use. Post a minimum of 300 words.
Bad or undesired behavior in an organization, for instance, can result in very bad and poor outcomes in the organization. it is therefore important to make sure that bad behavior is eliminated. Various ways can be used to make sure that bad behavior in an organization is never repeated. Employees might get themselves doing things that are not following the set standards in the organization. The management decides to use various forms of rectifying or preventing an occurrence of the undesired behavior.
The DRO technique is among the widely used rewarding techniques. It is widely used together with the positive reinforcement procedures to ensure that bad behavior is eliminated in an organization. DRO entails rewarding a person when he/she does not show undesired behavior during a particular period (Dennison, 2015). This is where a previous undesired behavior had been noted then the manager in an organization meets with the employee who had recorded undesired behavior then they discuss the situation. There is an agreement that the employee will not show the unwanted behavior within a stipulated or set period. When the employee achieves this, the manager rewards him/her.
DRO can be used together with positive reinforcement whereby the worker is rewarded for doing what is wanted by the company. Logically, when an employee is not doing against the will of the organization, he/she is doing something good for the organization. For example, if an employee used to get late to work and then there is an agreement with the manager that he/she will not get late again, the employee is, therefore, showing a positive behavior which can be rewarded through positive reinforcement methods such as been promoted in the job or been given more salary. This has been widely been used and has achieved a lot in various organizations.
6. Herrnstein’s Matching Law (concurrent schedules of reinforcement) has tremendous implications for using reinforcement-based behavior change methods in applied environments. Assume you have implemented a behavior change procedure in an applied environment (home, clinic, or classroom) using a token economy. Regarding the potency of your reinforcers, what must be considered if your plan is not working, and what is at least one change you could implement to make it work? Post a minimum of 250 words.
Sometimes, a behavior change procedure might fail to work as planned. It is therefore important to make sure that when a behavior change procedure does not work, one should make other changes in the plan and make it work better. For example, behavior change procedure whereby I have set a target that every Saturday, I have to my family for dinner in a neighboring town. To achieve this, I make sure that I save some money to cater for this activity. My saving behavior has been enhanced by this behavior whereby I am eager and willing to save a lot of money so that I can make my family happy. The reinforcer here is taking my family for dinner.
In case the plan is not working and I am not able to save enough for taking my family for dinner, I would consider using another type of reinforcer. Now I can decide to have a plan whereby I target to buy a vehicle after a certain period. This target would make me save a lot so that I can achieve it. I like driving but at the moment I do not own a car. My love for cars would make me save a lot and this would act as my reinforcer. Sometimes a behavior change plan might fail because the reinforcer might not be what the person likes most. It is therefore important to align one’s hobby with the reinforcers in a particular behavior change plan.
Dennison, P. (2015). YOU CAN TRAIN YOUR DOG! MASTERING THE ART & SCIENCE OF MODERN DOG TRAINING. Wenatchee, WA: Dogwise Publishing.
Hantula, D. A., & Wells, V. K. (2014). Consumer Behavior Analysis: (A) Rational Approach to Consumer Choice. Routledge.
Huesmann, L. (2013). Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media.
Spiegler, M. D. (2015). Contemporary Behavior Therapy. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
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