Please show your work in detail (no credit is given for a final answer).  Please provide responses directly under each question.

  1.  Describe cipher-block chaining (CBC) mode of operation of symmetric block ciphers. Why is it possible in CBC mode to perform decryption in parallel on multiple blocks of plaintext, but not encryption? 
  2. What is the ciphertext of the word cybersecurity using the rail fence cipher (key=2), followed by the ROT13 cipher, followed by the Caesar cipher?
  3. Perform encryption and decryption using the RSA algorithm given the following: p=47; q=59, e=17; M=11.
  4. What is the plaintext if C=10, e=5, and n=35 in a public-key system using RSA?
  5. Describe the components of a PKI. Search the Internet for a security incident which occurred because of a failure in one of the phases of the public-key certificate lifecycle. Explain how the incident could have been prevented.
  6. Which features of the TLS protocol prevent replay, IP spoofing, and MITM attacks? Explain.
  7. How can User A forge User B’s signature on an arbitrary message if User B uses the same RSA digital signature key pairs and RSA encryption key pairs? (Hint: User B’s help is needed.)
  8. Why is it important that the hash functions used in RSA digital signatures have collision and preimage resistance?
  9. Explain which security properties of a hash function are useful in detection of computer viruses, storing a passphrase, and HMAC.
  10. Explain why public-key cryptosystems have longer key lengths than symmetric cryptosystems.      

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