History EssayINSTRUCTIONS1. Observe closely the primary sources below.3. Using your textbook and the documents as your only sources, develop a reflection essay with the following paragraph topics. Paragraphs must be 200-250 words.PARAGRAPH 1: According to President Reagan, what does “having a positive view of American history” mean and what values does the country stand for? Based on the knowledge you have gained through this course, do you agree with these arguments about America’s past? Please reference at least one time frame, event, or topic you studied in the course in bold type to support your points.PARAGRAPH 2: How does Maya Angelou’s inauguration poem reflect upon the identity of “hyphenated Americans” by the early 1990s?PARAGRAPH 3: How does President Obama define Americanism? Looking back over what you have learned in this course, did his election, as the first person of color to become President of the United States, resolve the questions and crises surrounding the definition of an American citizen? In a post-9/11 world, has America progressed in its inclusiveness? Why or why not? Please reference at least one time frame, event, or topic you studied in the course in bold type to support your points.

Human Computer Interaction Questions

Name 4 different types of allocative physical keyboards (don’t include a standard QWERTY keyboards or a touch screen keyboards, and describe why each one might be went, or who might use it.
Chorded Keyboards – This is a keyboard that generates a letter or word depending on the combination of keys pressed simultaneously. It allows alphanumeric data to be entered with only one hand and can be used by the blind and stenographers.
OrbiTouch Keyless keyboard –  Is an adapted computer keyboard that does not need a finger or wrist to operate, allowing users with a limited set of motions to type without pain or discomfort.
One-hand keyboard – This keyboard is designed for typing with four fingers and the thumb. Therefore, suitable for persons with one hand.
Mouth stick Keyboard – A keyboard designed with conditions that exclude typing with hands and can be used comfortably by people with no hands.
What U.S law specifically requires that all U.S federal government technology be accountable for people with disabilities? What other U.S law requires web accountability for public accommodations (such as stores)? And finally, what European Union rule requires that web content of EU-member government be accountable?
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires US federal agencies to make electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to people with disabilities
Americans with disability acts require web accountability for people with disabilities in public accommodations such as stores, public accommodations, etc.
European Union Mandate 376

User-Centered Designs sources from the beginning on users and their tasks. Given that, what are the two core principles for UCD, in any stage?
The core principles of User-Centered Design are user involvement and requirements gathering. User involvement involves collaborating with the users in every step of the software development process, while requirements gathering involves aligning the business requirements with users’ needs.

The “Locked Out” video talks about the importance of same time, same content, same price”. Give one example of discrimination caused by inaccessible technology, in each one of those three categories.
An example of discrimination caused by inaccessible technology considering the same time and the same price is a case of a person who is physically disable who uses a wheel chair. This person might find it difficult accessing public transport means such as buses and metro due to the physical disability. However, they can access taxi services but taxi drivers rarely stop to pick them due to the wheelchair but when they do they require extra charge for putting their wheelchair in the trunk. An example of content discrimination due to inaccessible technology is information being presented in writing without any voice technology for considerations for the visually impaired.

Aside from blind people and people with low vision, as well as people who are preforming accessibility inspections, what other people with disabilities might use screen reader software, and why?
The other group of people that can use screen readers is people with learning disabilities. This group of people uses screen readers to assist with reading comprehension, structural page navigation, or even missing focus style.

How do surveys and focus group (ia requirements gathering) differ? Give one strength and one weakness for each.
Survey

A survey is a method of gathering user requirements or needs, which can be web-based, email, or paper-based. It contains a list of questions intended to identify and understand the requirements of a user during the development process.

Strength

Cost-effectiveness – With a survey, one is able to gather information from a large sample of people at a relatively low cost.

Weakness

Lack of depth- Some survey questions are usually standardized, making it difficult to ask more than general questions that a large range of people will find easy to understand.

Focus Group

On the other hand, a focus group uses a group of people to represent the users of a software product for an interactive guided discussion to obtain feedback on the product, concept, or service. The feedback can be about customer needs or opportunities to identify requirements or validate the existing requirements.

Strength

In-depth information- Focus groups allow interaction with participants; hence one can ask to follow up questions or those that explore more deeply.

Weakness

Small sample size – A small sample size might not represent the larger user population well.

Different stakeholders may have different goals related to designs. Please give one example of how user needs need to be balanced with business needs.
One of the ways a business needs can be balanced with user needs is by documenting a high level of user experience. For instance, making it easy for users to cancel a subscription is likely to give unsatisfied users a positive sense of relief. Still, an increase in the rate of cancellation would increase the number of losses the company would experience. Additionally, making it impossible for a user to cancel a subscription would result in negativity from the users due to the deductions on their bank accounts.

Therefore, the best balance between the two needs can be achieved by making an easy cancellation of a subscription while aiming at maximizing the number of users who choose to stay willingly. This can be done by asking some questions about the weaknesses of the available services while attempting to provide solutions for their problems.

Name and describe two assistive technology input approaches for people with spinal cord inquiries who are paralyzed from the neck down. How do they use them?
Two assistive technologies for people with people with spinal code injuries include eye-tracking technologies and voice or speech recognition technology.

Eye-tracking technology can be used in devices used to assist people with severely limited mobility control their computer using eye movement. It works by tracking the position of both eyes hence enabling them to perform various tasks like sending emails. It also enables cursor navigation across the screen using eye movement allowing users to perform actions like selecting scrolling and zooming.

Voice recognition technology can be used to create documents and emails without the use of a keyboard or a mouse. Using this technology, a user can take full control of a computer by performing activities like mouse clicks, the control, cursor movement. The software works by learning how an individual speaks and make sounds, then optimizes how it transcribes the users’ speech and responds to their commands.

Describe what is meant by a cognitive walk through designs? What are some of its advantages and disadvantages?
Cognitive walkthrough design is a usability evaluation technique where one or more evaluators or tester who is not a user walks through a set of tasks and asks questions from a user’s perspective. It is intended to understand a system’s learnability for new or infrequent users.

Advantages

A cognitive walkthrough can be performed at an early stage of development.
Uses a prototype and not a full working system; hence saves time for evaluation.
Issues are identified early enough hence fast development.

Disadvantages

Experts may sometimes find it is easy to play the role of a novice user.
It is expensive to pay experts to be testers.
What is a scenario? What is a persona? How are they utilized in user-centered design, and how do they differ?

A scenario is a narrative or a story describing what happens when users perform one or more tasks in a specific environmental situation. A persona refers to a description of a particular user of a product. A scenario help defines user requirements and understands important issues while a personas help the designers to understand who to design for.

Are customers always users?  When are they the same, and when do they plays different roles?
In the user-centered design of a product, customers are not always users. The customer is usually not the user when he or she is responsible for the procurement decisions but will not use the product. Otherwise, the customer is the user if the person buying will be the one to use the product.

What is an ethnography study? What are its strengths and weaknesses? Describe a scenario where this would be most effective.
Ethnography is a social is qualitative study which aims at the social interaction of users in a particular environment. It provides a deep insight into the views and actions of a user alongside their encounters.

Strengths

Useful in identifying and examining unexpected issues.
Helps discover and analyze relevant user attitudes and emotions. 

Weaknesses

Takes a longer period to produce and analyze data.
Subjects of an ethnography study may not act naturally during a short study.

Scenario

Ethnography is most effective in the early stages of a user-centered design project since it focuses on understanding the project. The most appropriate scenario for ethnography study is that of an insurance company that is redesigning their system that deals with the processing of insurance claims.

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