Men’s health

Read chapter 18 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentation.  Once done, answer the following questions.

  1. Identify and discuss the major indicators of men’s health status.
  2. Mention and describe the physiological and psychosocial factors that have an impact on men’s health status.
  3. Mention and discuss barriers to be improving men’s health.
  4. Mention and discuss factors that promote men’s health.

As stated in the syllabus present your assignment in an APA format word document, APA required font attached to the forum in the discussion tab of the blackboard titled “Week 11 discussion questions” and the SafeAssign exercise in the assignment tab of the blackboard which is a mandatory requirement.  A minimum of 2 evidence-based references (besides the class textbook) no older than 5 years must be used.  You must post two replies on different dates to any of your peers sustained with the proper references no older than 5 years as well and make sure the references are properly quoted in your assignment. The replies cannot be posted on the same day, I must see different dates in the replies.   A minimum of 800 words is required and not exceeding 1,000 words (excluding the first and reference page).  Please make sure to follow the instructions as given and use either spell-check or Grammarly before you post your assignment.

Please check your assignment after the week is due or after it is graded because I either made comments or ask for clarification in some replies or the assignment that required your response.

Due dates:  Assignment – Wednesday, July 15, 2020, at 11:59 PM in the discussion tab of the blackboard, and in the SafeAssign exercise in the assignment tab of the blackboard.

Chapter 18

Men’s Health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Longevity and Mortality in Men

Rates of longevity are increasing for both men and women.

Gender disparity for life expectancy and mortality has decreased, but mortality rates for men remain higher than those for women.

Factors influencing mortality rates include race or ethnic origin, socioeconomic status, and education.

Males continue to be at risk for death resulting from unintentional injury and homicide.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Morbidity in Men’s Health

Men tend to perceive themselves to be in better health than do women.

Women are more likely to be ill, whereas men are at greater risk for death.

Incidence rate for acute and chronic conditions is higher for women than for men; injuries are higher for men than women.

Women have higher morbidity rates than men, but men have higher morbidity and mortality rates for conditions that are the leading causes of death.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Precursors of Death Frequently NOT Addressed by the Present Health Care System

Heart disease and stroke

Hypercholesterolemia

Hypertension

Diabetes mellitus

Obesity

Type A personality

Family history

Lack of exercise

Cigarette smoking

Cancer

Sunlight

Radiation

Occupational hazards

Water pollution

Air pollution

Dietary patterns

Alcohol

Heredity

Certain medical conditions

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Men’s Use of Medical Care

Men do not engage in health protective behaviors at frequently as women.

Most men do not have routine check-ups, including screenings.

Men seek ambulatory care less often than women.

Men delay medical treatment  are sicker when they do seek health care  therefore they require more intensive medical care.

Men tend to have longer lengths of stay in the hospital than women.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Male-Female Health Paradox

Females are sicker, but males die sooner?

– Verbrugge and

Wingard (1987)

Male-Female Health Paradox (Cont.)

Biological factors

Genetics, effects of sex hormones, and physiological differences Influenced by genetics, hormones, and environment

Socialization

Men enculturate their sons to believe that risking personal injury demonstrates masculinity.

Men are more likely to change health behaviors when supported by female family members.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Male-Female Health Paradox (Cont.)

Orientation toward illness and prevention

Stereotypical view of men as strong and invulnerable is incongruent with health promotion.

Men lack the somatic awareness and are less likely to interpret symptoms as indicators of illness.

Men may have a desire to rationalize symptoms and deny their susceptibility to disease, thus delaying treatment.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Male-Female Health Paradox (Cont.)

Data collection on health behaviors may not be accurate:

Males are less likely than females to participate in the data collection process.

Social pressure for males to be less expressive (suppress their emotions) may help explain gender differences in reporting health behaviors.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Nurse’s Responsibilities with Men’s Health

Use gender-specific interview techniques to obtain the most accurate health history.

Be aware of personal gender bias in data collection.

Be aware of the accuracy and interpretation of secondary sources of information.

Help men learn how to provide support to the caregiver or to develop a caregiver role.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Nurse’s Responsibilities with Men’s Health (Cont.)

Acknowledge that gender-linked behaviors increase risks:

Lifestyle factors (e.g., use of tobacco, substance abuse, poor preventive health habits and stress, lack of emotional channels)

Men’s unwillingness to seek preventive care

Men’s unwillingness to seek health care when a symptom arises

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Barriers to Health Care for Men

Little effort has been made to create a male-specific health care climate

Access to care

Focused on maintaining an effective workforce

Financial support for curative—not preventive—care

Reluctance to take time off from work for care

Lack of health promotion

Disease prevention and health promotion not often reflected in a man’s perception of health

Focus on disease cure in the present health care system

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Men’s Health Care Needs

Permission to have concerns about health and talk openly to others about them

Support for the consideration of gender role and lifestyle influences on their physical and mental health

Attention from professionals regarding factors that may result in illness or influence a man’s expression of illness, including such things as occupational factors, leisure patterns, and interpersonal relationships

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Men’s Health Care Needs (Cont.)

Information about how their bodies function, what is normal, what is abnormal, what action to take, and the role of proper nutrition and exercise

Self-care: testicular and genital self-exams

Physical exam and history-taking that include sexual and reproductive health and illness across the lifespan

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Men’s Health Care Needs (Cont.)

Treatment for problems of couples, such as interpersonal problems, infertility, family planning, sexual concerns, and STDs

Help with fathering (i.e., being included as a parent in child care)

Help with fathering as a single parent, particularly with a child of the opposite sex, in addressing the child’s sexual development and concerns

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Men’s Health Care Needs (Cont.)

Recognition that feelings of confusion and uncertainty in a time of rapid social change are normal and that they may mark the onset of healthy adaptation to change

Adjustment of the health care system to men’s occupational constraints regarding time and location of health care sources

Financial ways to obtain these goals

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Primary Prevention Measures

Provide health education and screening in the workplace

Participate in interest groups and research focused on men’s health

Encourage interest in physical fitness and lifestyle changes

Include the male perception of health in policy formation

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Secondary Prevention Measures

Tailor health care clinics to men’s needs

Provide screening services for men

Dental examination: Yearly

Eye examination: Every 3 to 5 years

Blood pressure check: Every 2 years

Blood cholesterol check for men aged 53 years and older

Prostate examination: Every year after age 50; blacks every year after age 40

Colorectal screening: Every 3 to 5 years

Tobacco use and cessation information every year

One-time screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm for men 65 years old if the male has smoked

– The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2004)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Tertiary Prevention Measures

Provide rehabilitation with sex role and lifestyle considerations

Provide counseling on lifestyle, role changes, and job retraining.

Give men permission to express emotions.

Adapt goal setting to meet men’s needs.

Keep time away from work to a minimum.

Develop new concepts of community care

Provide specific services for men; adapt care to meet needs of male population in the community.


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